Khác biệt giữa các bản “Vữa”

(chép từ wikipedia)
*Theo công dụng: gồm vữa xây, vữa trát, vữa lát, ốp, vữa dùng để trang trí hoặc những loại đặc biệt như vữa chống thấm, vữa chịu nhiệt độ cao, vữa chịu độ mặn...
==Lịch sử==
 
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{{Đang dịch 2 (nguồn)|ngày=13
The first mortars were made of mud and [[clay]]. Because of a lack of stone and an abundance of clay, [[Babylonia]]n constructions were of baked brick, using lime or [[Pitch (resin)|pitch]] for mortar. According to [[Roman Ghirshman]], the first evidence of humans using a form of mortar was at the [[ziggurat]] of [[Sialk]] in Iran, built of sun-dried bricks in 2900 BC.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=37364&sectionid=3510304 |title=No Operation |publisher=Presstv.ir |date= |accessdate=2012-11-03}}</ref> The [[Chogha Zanbil]] Temple in Iran was built in about 1250 BC with kiln-fired bricks and a strong mortar of [[bitumen]].
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TheHỗn firsthợp mortarsvữa werexuất madehiện ofđầu mudtiên andđược làm từ [[claybùn]]. Because of[[đất asét]]. lackDo ofngười stone[[Babylon]] andkhông an abundance of clay,nhiều [[Babyloniađá]]n constructions weređất ofsét bakedcho bricknên các công trình của họ làm từ [[gạch nung]], usingsử limedụng orvôi hoặc [[Pitchhắc (resin)|pitchín]] forlàm vữa để gắn mortarkết. According to [[Roman Ghirshman]], the first evidence of humans using a form of mortar was at the [[ziggurat]] of [[Sialk]] in Iran, built of sun-dried bricks in 2900 BC.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=37364&sectionid=3510304 |title=No Operation |publisher=Presstv.ir |date= |accessdate=2012-11-03}}</ref> The [[Chogha Zanbil]] Temple in Iran was built in about 1250 BC with kiln-fired bricks and a strong mortar of [[bitumen]].
 
In early [[Egyptian pyramids]] constructed about 2600–2500 BC, the limestone blocks were bound by mortar of mud and clay, or clay and sand.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/smallstep.htm |title=Egypt: Egypt's Ancient, Small, Southern, Step Pyramids |publisher=Touregypt.net |date=2011-06-21 |accessdate=2012-11-03}}</ref> In later Egyptian pyramids, the mortar was made of either [[gypsum]] or lime.<ref name="hcia.gr">{{cite web|url=http://www.hcia.gr/3a.html |title=HCIA - 2004 |publisher=Hcia.gr |date= |accessdate=2012-11-03}}</ref> Gypsum mortar was essentially a mixture of [[plaster]] and [[sand]] and was quite soft.
 
It is not understood how the art of making hydraulic mortar and cement, which was perfected and in such widespread use by both the Greeks and Romans, was then lost for almost two millennia. During the [[Middle Ages]] when the Gothic cathedrals were being built, the only active ingredient in the mortar was lime. Since cured [[lime mortar]] can be degraded by contact with water, many structures suffered from wind blown rain over the centuries.
 
==Tham khảo==
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