Mở trình đơn chính

Các thay đổi

*[[Đĩa tiền hành tinh]]
 
==Chú thích==
{{tham khảo}}
==Tham khảo==
==Cited sources==
{{Refbegin|2}}
* {{citation
| bibcode = 2003IAUS..209...15A
| title = Historical Remarks on the Spectroscopic Analysis of Planetary Nebulae (invited review)
| last1 = Aller
| first1 = Lawrence H.
| last2 = Hyung
| first2 = Siek
| year = 2003
| series = Planetary Nebulae: Their Evolution and Role in the Universe
| journal = Proceedings of the 209th Symposium of the International Astronomical Union
| date = 19–23 November 2001
| publication-place = Canberra, Australia
| editor1-last = Kwok
| editor1-first = Sun
| editor2-last = Dopita
| editor2-first = Michael
| editor3-last = Sutherland
| editor3-first = Ralph
| publisher = Astronomical Society of the Pacific
| volume = 209
| page = 15
| origyear = 2001
}}
* {{citation
| last = Allison
| first = Mark
| title = Star clusters and how to observe them
| isbn = 978-1-84628-190-7
| pages = 56–8
| year = 2006
| publisher = Birkhäuser
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Bowen
| first1 = I. S.
| date = October 1927
| title = The Origin of the Chief Nebular Lines
| journal = Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
| volume = 39
| pages = 295–7
| bibcode = 1927PASP...39..295B
| doi = 10.1086/123745
}}
* {{citation
| bibcode = 2009NewA...14..654F
| title = Very late thermal pulses influenced by accretion in planetary nebulae
| date = November 2009
| last1 = Frankowski
| first1 = Adam
| last2 = Soker
| first2 = Noam
| journal = New Astronomy
| volume = 14
| issue = 8
| pages = 654–8
| quote = A planetary nebula (PN) is an expanding ionized circumstellar cloud that was ejected during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of the stellar progenitor.
| doi = 10.1016/j.newast.2009.03.006
|arxiv = 0903.3364 }}
* {{citation
| last1 = Gurzadyan
| first1 = Grigor A.
| year = 1997
| title = The Physics and dynamics of planetary nebulae
| publisher = Springer
| isbn = 978-3-540-60965-0
| page =
| url = http://books.google.com/?id=xxVkZBVIZeAC
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Harpaz
| first1 = Amos
| title = Stellar Evolution
| year = 1994
| isbn = 978-1-56881-012-6
| url = http://books.google.com/?id=kd4VEZv8oo0C&dq
| publisher = A K Peters, Ltd.
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Hora
| first1 = Joseph L.
| last2 = Latter
| first2 = William B.
| last3 = Allen
| first3 = Lori E.
| last4 = Marengo
| first4 = Massimo
| last5 = Deutsch
| first5 = Lynne K.
| last6 = Pipher
| first6 = Judith L.
| title = Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Observations of Planetary Nebulae
| journal = Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
| date = September 2004
| volume = 154
| issue = 1
| pages = 296–301
| bibcode = 2004ApJS..154..296H
| doi = 10.1086/422820
}}
* {{citation
| url = http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1997/38/background/
| title = Hubble Witnesses the Final Blaze of Glory of Sun-Like Stars
| publisher = Hubblesite.org
| date = December 17, 1997
| accessdate = 2008-08-09
| ref = CITEREFHubblesite.org1997
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Huggins
| first1 = W.
| last2 = Miller
| first2 = W. A.
| year = 1864
| title = On the Spectra of some of the Nebulae
| journal = Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
| volume = 154
| pages = 437–44
| bibcode = 1864RSPT..154..437H
| doi=10.1098/rstl.1864.0013
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Iliadis
| first1 = Christian
| title = Nuclear physics of stars. Physics textbook
| publisher = Wiley-VCH
| year = 2007
| pages = 18, 439–42
| isbn = 978-3-527-40602-9
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Jacoby
| first1 = George. H.
| last2 = Ferland
| first2 = Gary. J.
| last3 = Korista
| first3 = Kirk T.
| journal = The Astrophysical Journal
| volume = 560
| issue = 1
| pages = 272–86
| title = The Planetary Nebula A39: An Observational Benchmark for Numerical Modeling of Photoionized Plasmas
| year = 2001
| doi = 10.1086/322489
| bibcode = 2001ApJ...560..272J
}}
* {{citation
| date = March 2005
| bibcode = 2005A&A...432..273J
| last1 = Jordan
| last2 = Werner
| first2 = K.
| last3 = O'Toole
| first3 = S. J.
| title = Discovery of magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae
| journal = Astronomy & Astrophysics
| volume = 432
| issue = 1
| pages = 273–9
| doi = 10.1051/0004-6361:20041993
| first1 = S.
|arxiv = astro-ph/0501040 }}
* {{citation
| date = November 2008
| bibcode = 2008MNRAS.391..399K
| last1 = Kiss
| first1 = L. L.
| last2 = Szabó
| first2 = Gy. M.
| last3 = Balog
| first3 = Z.
| last4 = Parker
| first4 = Q. A.
| last5 = Frew
| first5 = D. J.
| title =AAOmega radial velocities rule out current membership of the planetary nebula NGC 2438 in the open cluster M46
| journal = [[Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society]]
| volume = 391
| issue = 1
| pages = 399–404
| doi = 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13899.x
|arxiv = 0809.0327 }}
* {{citation
| url = http://books.google.com/?id=gDSsAAAAIAAJ
| title = Astronomy
| last1 = Krause
| first1 = Arthur
| year = 1961
| publisher = Oliver and Boyd
| page = 187
}}
* {{citation
| last = Kwok
| first = Sun
| title = The origin and evolution of planetary nebulae
| year = 2000
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| isbn = 0-521-62313-8
| url = http://books.google.com/?id=7NfqpZxO_o0C
}} (Chapter 1 can be downloaded [http://web.archive.org/web/20040708190848/http://www.iras.ucalgary.ca/~kwok/chap1.pdf here].)
* {{citation
| doi = 10.5303/JKAS.2005.38.2.271
| bibcode = 2005JKAS...38..271K
| title = Planetary Nebulae: New Challenges in the 21st Century
| last1 = Kwok
| first1 = Sun
| author1-link = Sun Kwok
| date = June 2005
| journal = Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society
| volume = 38
| issue = 2
| pages = 271–8
}}
* {{citation
| bibcode = 2005ApJ...635L..49K
| last1 = Kwok
| first1 = Sun
| last2 = Su
| first2 = Kate Y. L.
| date = December 2005
| title = Discovery of Multiple Coaxial Rings in the Quadrupolar Planetary Nebula NGC 6881
| journal = The Astrophysical Journal
| volume = 635
| issue = 1
| pages = L49–52
| doi = 10.1086/499332
| quote = We report the discovery of multiple two-dimensional rings in the quadrupolar planetary nebula NGC 6881. As many as four pairs of rings are seen in the bipolar lobes, and three rings are seen in the central torus. While the rings in the lobes have the same axis as one pair of the bipolar lobes, the inner rings are aligned with the other pair. The two pairs of bipolar lobes are likely to be carved out by two separate high-velocity outflows from the circumstellar material left over from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) wind. The two-dimensional rings could be the results of dynamical instabilities or the consequence of a fast outflow interacting with remnants of discrete AGB circumstellar shells.
}}
* {{citation
| bibcode = 2006IAUS..234..445K
| title = Planetary nebulae in the GLIMPSE survey
| last1 = Kwok
| first1 = Sun
| last2 = Koning
| first2 = Nico
| last3 = Huang
| first3 = Hsiu-Hui
| last4 = Churchwell
| first4 = Edward
| year = 2006
| series = Planetary Nebulae in our Galaxy and Beyond
| editor1-last = Barlow
| editor3-first = Roberto H.
| editor2-last = Méndez
| place = Cambridge
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| pages = 445–6
| doi = 10.1017/S1743921306003668
| quote = Planetary nebulae (PNs) have high dust content and radiate strongly in the infrared. For young PNs, the dust component accounts for ∼1/3 of the total energy output of the nebulae (Zhang & Kwok 1991). The typical color temperatures of PNs are between 100 and 200 K, and at λ >5 μm, dust begins to dominate over bound-free emission from the ionized component. Although PNs are traditionally discovered through examination of photographic plates or Hα surveys, PNs can also be identified in infrared surveys by searching for red objects with a rising spectrum between 4–10 μm.
| issue = S234
| journal = Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Symposium #234
| editor-first = Michael J.
| volume = 2
}}
* {{citation
| bibcode = 2000MNRAS.312..585L
| date = March 2000
| last1 = Liu
| first1 = X.-W.
| last2 = Storey
| first2 = P. J.
| last3 = Barlow
| first3 = M. J.
| last4 = Danziger
| first4 = I. J.
| last5 = Cohen
| first5 = M.
| last6 = Bryce
| first6 = M.
| title = NGC 6153: a super–metal–rich planetary nebula?
| journal = Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
| volume = 312
| issue = 3
| pages = 585–628
| doi = 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03167.x
}}
* {{citation
| bibcode = 2009RMxAA..45..127M
| title = Planetary nebulae and the chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds
| last1 = Maciel
| first1 = W. J.
| last2 = Costa
| first2 = R. D. D.
| last3 = Idiart
| first3 = T. E. P.
| date = October 2009
| journal = Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica
| volume = 45
| pages = 127–37
| quote = These objects are produced by low and intermediate mass stars, with main sequence masses roughly between 0.8 and 8 M<sub>⊙</sub>, and present a reasonably large age and metallicity spread.
|arxiv = 0904.2549}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Majaess
| first1 = D. J.
| last2 = Turner
| first2 = D.
| last3 = Lane
| first3 = D.
| date = December 2007
| bibcode = 2007PASP..119.1349M
| title = In Search of Possible Associations between Planetary Nebulae and Open Clusters
| journal = Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
| volume = 119
| issue = 862
| pages = 1349–60
| doi = 10.1086/524414
|arxiv = 0710.2900 }}
* {{citation
| chapter = Chapter 19: Chemical abundances
| last1 = Marochnik
| first1 = L.S.
| last2 = Shukurov
| first2 = Anwar
| last3 = Yastrzhembsky
| first3 = Igor
| title = The Milky Way galaxy
| year = 1996
| publisher = Taylor & Francis
| pages = 6–10
| isbn = 978-2-88124-931-0
| url = http://books.google.com/?id=uRgWHDGpKZIC
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Mermilliod
| first1 = J.-C.
| last2 = Clariá
| first2 = J. J.
| last3 = Andersen
| first3 = J.
| last4 = Piatti
| first4 = A. E.
| last5 = Mayor
| first5 = M.
| date = August 2001
| bibcode = 2001A&A...375...30M
| title = Red giants in open clusters. IX. NGC 2324, 2818, 3960 and 6259
| journal = Astronomy and Astrophysics
| volume = 375
| issue = 1
| pages = 30–9
| doi = 10.1051/0004-6361:20010845
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Miszalski
| first1 = B.
| last2 = Jones
| first2 = D.
| last3 = Rodríguez-Gil
| first3 = P.
| last4 = Boffin
| first4 = H. M. J.
| last5 = Corradi
| first5 = R. L. M.
| last6 = Santander-García
| first6 = M.
| title = Discovery of close binary central stars in the planetary nebulae NGC 6326 and NGC 6778
| journal = Astronomy and Astrophysics
| year = 2011
| volume = 531
| pages = A158
| bibcode = 2011A&A...531A.158M
| doi = 10.1051/0004-6361/201117084|arxiv = 1105.5731 }}
* {{citation
| last1 = Moore
| first1 = S. L.
| title = Observing the Cat's Eye Nebula
| journal = Journal of the British Astronomical Association
| date = October 2007
| volume = 117
| issue = 5
| pages = 279–80
| bibcode = 2007JBAA..117R.279M
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Morris
| first1 = M.
| title = From Miras to planetary nebulae: which path for stellar evolution?
| chapter = Bipolar asymmetry in the mass outflows of stars in transition
| year = 1990
| publisher = Atlantica Séguier Frontières
| location = Montpellier, France, September 4–7, 1989 IAP astrophysics meeting
| pages = 526–30
| isbn = 978-2-86332-077-8
| editors = Mennessier, M.O.; Omont, Alain
| url = http://books.google.com/?id=qTZld_-Y5qYC
}}
* {{citation
| title=Astrophysics of gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei
| last = Osterbrock
| first = Donald E.
| last2 = Ferland
| first2 = G. J.
| editor = Ferland, G. J.
| publisher = University Science Books
| year = 2005
| isbn = 978-1-891389-34-4
}}
* {{citation
| author=Parker, Quentin A.; Acker, A.; Frew, D. J.; Hartley, M.; Peyaud, A. E. J.; Ochsenbein, F.; Phillipps, S.; Russeil, D.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Cohen, M.; Köppen, J.; Miszalski, B.; Morgan, D. H.; Morris, R. A. H.; Pierce, M. J.; Vaughan, A. E.
| date = November 2006
| title = The Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg Hα Planetary Nebula Catalogue: MASH
| bibcode = 2006MNRAS.373...79P
| journal = Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
| volume = 373
| issue = 1
| pages = 79–94
| doi = 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10950.x
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Parker
| first1 = Quentin A.
| last2 = Frew
| first2 = David J.
| last3 = Miszalski
| first3 = B.
| last4 = Kovacevic
| first4 = Anna V.
| last5 = Frinchaboy
| first5 = Peter.
| last6 = Dobbie
| first6 = Paul D.
| last7 = Köppen
| first7 = J.
| date = May 2011
| title = PHR 1315–6555: A bipolar planetary nebula in the compact Hyades-age open cluster ESO 96-SC04
| bibcode = 2011MNRAS.413.1835P
| journal = Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
| volume = 413
| issue = 3
| pages = 1835–1844
| doi = 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18259.x
| ref = {{Harvid|Parker|2011}}
|arxiv = 1101.3814 }}
* {{citation
| last1 = Reed
| first1 = Darren S.
| last2 = Balick
| first2 = Bruce
| last3 = Hajian
| first3 = Arsen R.
| last4 = Klayton
| first4 = Tracy L.
| last5 = Giovanardi
| first5 = Stefano
| last6 = Casertano
| first6 = Stefano
| last7 = Panagia
| first7 = Nino
| last8 = Terzian
| first8 = Yervant
| title = Hubble Space Telescope Measurements of the Expansion of NGC 6543: Parallax Distance and Nebular Evolution
| journal = Astronomical Journal
| date = November 1999
| volume = 118
| issue = 5
| pages = 2430–41
| bibcode = 1999AJ....118.2430R
| doi = 10.1086/301091
|arxiv = astro-ph/9907313 }}
* {{citation
| last1 = Renzini
| first1 = A.
| year = 1987
| title = Thermal pulses and the formation of planetary nebula shells
| bibcode = 1989IAUS..131..391R
| journal = Proceedings of the 131st symposium of the IAU
| editor = S. Torres-Peimbert
| pages = 391–400
| volume = 131
}}
* {{citation
| date = February 2002
| last1 = Soker
| first1 = Noam
| title = Why every bipolar planetary nebula is 'unique'
| bibcode = 2002MNRAS.330..481S
| journal = Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
| volume = 330
| issue = 2
| pages = 481–6
| doi = 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05105.x
|arxiv = astro-ph/0107554 }}
* {{citation
| url = http://www.spacedaily.com/news/stellar-chemistry-05a.html
| title = The first detection of magnetic fields in the central stars of four planetary nebulae
| publisher = SpaceDaily Express
| date = January 6, 2005
| quote = Source: Journal Astronomy & Astrophysics
| accessdate = October 18, 2009
| ref = CITEREFSpaceDaily Express2005
}}
* {{citation
| last1 = Rees
| first1 = B.
| last2 = Zijlstra
| first2 = A.A.
| date = July 2013
| title = Alignment of the Angular Momentum Vectors of Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge
| url = http://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1316a.pdf
| publisher = SpaceTelescope.org
| journal = Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc
}}
* {{citation
| url = http://messier.seds.org/planetar.html
| title = Planetary Nebulae
| publisher = SEDS
| date = September 9, 2013
| accessdate = 2013-11-10
| ref = CITEREFSEDS2013
}}
 
{{Refend}}
==Liên kết ngoài==
{{Commons category|Planetary nebulae}}
*[http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/P/planneb.html Entry in the Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, and Spaceflight]
*[http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/cycle1/1220/index.html Press release on recent observations of the Cat's Eye Nebula]
* [http://messier.seds.org/planetar.html Planetary Nebulae], SEDS Messier Pages
* [http://www.spacedaily.com/news/stellar-chemistry-05a.html The first detection of magnetic fields in the central stars of four planetary nebulae]
* [http://www.nightskyinfo.com/planetary_nebulae Planetary Nebulae—Information and amateur observations]
* [http://xstructure.inr.ac.ru/x-bin/theme3.py?level=1&index1=38478 Planetary nebula on arxiv.org]