Khác biệt giữa các bản “D. H. Lawrence”

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'''David Herbert Lawrence''' (11 tháng 9 1885 – 2 tháng 3 1930) là một tiểu thuyết gia, nhà thơ, nhà viết kịch, viết luận, nhà phê bình văn họcchương và họa sĩ người Anh, dưới bút danh '''D. H. Lawrence'''. Những tác phẩm nối tiếp nhau của ông, cũng như nhiều tác phẩm khác, đã phản ánh mặt trái vô nhân tính của thời kỳ hiện đại và công nghiệp hóa. Những nội dung mà Lawrence đi sâu khám phá bao gồm sự lành mạnh về cảm xúc, sức sống, tính tự phát và bản năng.
 
Những tư tưởng của Lawrence khiến ông có nhiều kẻ thủ, ông phải chịu đựng những ngược đãi, kiểm duyệt, xuyên tạc của chính quyền đối với những tác phẩm đầy sáng tạo trong suốt nửa cuối cuộc đời, trong đó có nhiều năm ông tự đày ải mình mà ông gọi là "cuộc hành huơng về nơi hoang dã". <ref>"It has been a savage enough pilgrimage these last four years" Letter to J. M. Murry, 2 February 1923.</ref> Lúc qua đời, công chúng biết đến ông như một người viết truyện khiêu dâm, một kẻ đã lãng phí tài năng lớn của mình. [[E. M. Forster]], trong một bản cáo phó, đã lên tiếng thách thức dư luận và gọi ông là "Tiểu thuyết gia sáng tạo bật nhất trong thế hệ của chúng ta."<ref>Letter to ''[[The Nation and Atheneum]]'', 29 March 1930.</ref> Sau đó, một nhà phê bình có sức ảnh hưởng lớn ở [[Đại học Cambridge]] là [[F. R. Leavis]] đã bênh vực cho cả tính chính trực về phuơng diện nghệ thuật và tính nghiêm túc về phuơng diện đạo đức của ông, qua đó đặt những tiểu thuyết của Lawrence's nằm trong số những tác phẩm truyền thống kinh điển của tiểu thuyết Anh.
The young Lawrence attended Beauvale Board School (now renamed Greasley Beauvale D. H. Lawrence [[Primary School]] in his honour) from 1891 until 1898, becoming the first local pupil to win a [[County Council]] scholarship to [[Nottingham High School]] in nearby Nottingham. He left in 1901, working for three months as a junior clerk at Haywood's surgical appliances factory, but a severe bout of pneumonia ended this career. During his convalescence he often visited Hagg's Farm, the home of the Chambers family, and began a friendship with Jessie Chambers. An important aspect of this relationship with Chambers and other adolescent acquaintances was a shared love of books, an interest that lasted throughout Lawrence's life. In the years 1902 to 1906 Lawrence served as a [[pupil teacher]] at the British School, Eastwood. He went on to become a full-time student and received a [[Qualified Teacher Status|teaching certificate]] from [[University of Nottingham|University College, Nottingham]], in 1908. During these early years he was working on his first poems, some short stories, and a draft of a novel, ''Laetitia'', which was eventually to become ''[[The White Peacock]].'' At the end of 1907 he won a short story competition in the ''Nottingham Guardian'', the first time that he had gained any wider recognition for his literary talents.
 
===EarlyKhởi careernghiệp===
In the autumn of 1908 the newly qualified Lawrence left his childhood home for London. While teaching in Davidson Road School, [[Croydon]], he continued writing. Some of the early poetry, submitted by Jessie Chambers, came to the attention of [[Ford Madox Ford]], then known as Ford Hermann Hueffer and [[editing|editor]] of the influential ''[[The English Review]]''. Hueffer then commissioned the story ''[[Odour of Chrysanthemums]]'' which, when published in that magazine, encouraged [[Heinemann (book publisher)|Heinemann]], a London publisher, to ask Lawrence for more work. His career as a professional author now began in earnest, although he taught for another year. Shortly after the final proofs of his first published novel, ''[[The White Peacock]]'', appeared in 1910, Lawrence's mother died of cancer. The young man was devastated, and he was to describe the next few months as his "sick year." It is clear that Lawrence had an extremely close relationship with his mother, and his grief became a major turning point in his life, just as the death of Mrs. Morel is a major turning point in his autobiographical novel ''[[Sons and Lovers]]'', a work that draws upon much of the writer's provincial upbringing.
 
In late 1917, after constant harassment by the armed forces authorities, Lawrence was forced to leave Cornwall at three days' notice under the terms of the [[Defence of the Realm Act]] (DORA). This persecution was later described in an autobiographical chapter of his Australian novel ''Kangaroo'', published in 1923. He spent some months in early 1918 in the small, rural village of [[Hermitage, Berkshire|Hermitage]] near [[Newbury, Berkshire]]. He then lived for just under a year (mid-1918 to early 1919) at Mountain Cottage, [[Middleton-by-Wirksworth]], [[Derbyshire]], where he wrote one of his most poetic short stories, ''The White Peacock''. Until 1919 he was compelled by poverty to shift from address to address and barely survived a severe attack of [[influenza]].
 
===ExileĐày ải===
After the traumatic experience of the war years, Lawrence began what he termed his 'savage pilgrimage', a time of voluntary exile. He escaped from Britain at the earliest practical opportunity, to return only twice for brief visits, and with his wife spent the remainder of his life travelling. This [[wanderlust]] took him to Australia, Italy, [[Ceylon]] (now called [[Sri Lanka]]), the United States, Mexico and the South of France.
 
Lawrence abandoned Britain in November 1919 and headed south, first to the [[Abruzzi]] region in central Italy and then onwards to [[Capri]] and the Fontana Vecchia in [[Taormina]], Sicily. From Sicily he made brief excursions to [[Sardinia]], [[Monte Cassino]], [[Malta]], Northern Italy, Austria and Southern Germany. Many of these places appeared in his writings. New novels included ''[[The Lost Girl]]'' (for which he won the [[James Tait Black Memorial Prize]] for fiction), ''[[Aaron's Rod (novel)|Aaron's Rod]]'' and the fragment titled ''[[Mr Noon]]'' (the first part of which was published in the Phoenix anthology of his works, and the entirety in 1984). He experimented with shorter novels or [[novellas]], such as ''[[The Captain's Doll]],'' ''[[The Fox (novella)|The Fox]]'' and ''[[The Ladybird]].'' In addition, some of his short stories were issued in the collection ''[[England, My England and Other Stories]].'' During these years he produced a number of poems about the natural world in ''[[Birds, Beasts and Flowers]].'' Lawrence is widely recognised as one of the finest travel writers in the English language. ''[[Sea and Sardinia]],'' a book that describes a brief journey undertaken in January 1921, is a recreation of the life of the inhabitants of [[Sardinia]].<ref>Luciano Marrocu, ''Introduzione'' to [[Mare e Sardegna]] (Ilisso 2000); [[Giulio Angioni]], ''Pane e formaggio e altre cose di Sardegna'' (Zonza 2002)</ref> Less well known is the memoir of [[Maurice Magnus]], ''Memoirs of the Foreign Legion'', in which Lawrence recalls his visit to the monastery of [[Monte Cassino]]. Other non-fiction books include two responses to [[Freudian]] psychoanalysis and ''[[Movements in European History]],'' a school textbook that was published under a pseudonym, a reflection of his blighted reputation in Britain.
 
===Cuộc sống và sự nghiệp cuối đời===
===Later life and career===
In late February 1922 the Lawrences left Europe behind with the intention of migrating to the United States. They sailed in an easterly direction, first to Ceylon and then on to Australia. A short residence in [[Darlington, Western Australia|Darlington]], [[Western Australia]], which included an encounter with local writer [[Mollie Skinner]], was followed by a brief stop in the small coastal town of [[Thirroul, New South Wales|Thirroul]], [[New South Wales]], during which Lawrence completed ''[[Kangaroo (novel)|Kangaroo]],'' a novel about local fringe politics that also revealed a lot about his wartime experiences in Cornwall.
 
The return to Italy allowed Lawrence to renew old friendships; during these years he was particularly close to [[Aldous Huxley]], who was to edit the first collection of Lawrence's letters after his death, along with a memoir. With artist [[Earl Brewster]], Lawrence visited a number of local archaeological sites in April 1927. The resulting essays describing these visits to old tombs were written up and collected together as ''[[Sketches of Etruscan Places and other Italian essays|Sketches of Etruscan Places]],'' a book that contrasts the lively past with [[Benito Mussolini]]'s fascism. Lawrence continued to produce fiction, including short stories and ''[[The Escaped Cock]]'' (also published as ''The Man Who Died''), an unorthodox reworking of the story of Jesus Christ's [[Resurrection of Jesus|Resurrection]]. During these final years Lawrence renewed a serious interest in oil painting. Official harassment persisted and an exhibition of some of these pictures at the Warren Gallery in London was raided by the police in mid 1929 and a number of works were confiscated.
 
===DeathCái chết===
Lawrence continued to write despite his failing health. In his last months he wrote numerous poems, reviews and essays, as well as a robust defence of his last novel against those who sought to suppress it. His last significant work was a reflection on the [[Book of Revelation]], ''Apocalypse''. After being discharged from a [[sanatorium]], he died 2 March 1930 at the Villa Robermond in [[Vence]], France, from complications of tuberculosis. Frieda Weekley commissioned an elaborate headstone for his grave bearing a mosaic of his adopted emblem of the [[Phoenix (mythology)|phoenix]].<ref>Squire's, Michael. ''D. H. Lawrence and Frieda''. Andre Deutsch: London</ref> After Lawrence's death, Frieda lived with [[Angelo Ravagli]] on the ranch in [[Taos, New Mexico|Taos]] and eventually married him in 1950. In 1935 Ravaglio arranged, on Frieda's behalf, to have Lawrence's body exhumed and cremated and his ashes brought back to the ranch to be interred there in a small chapel amid the mountains of [[New Mexico]].
 
==Triết học, tôn giáo và chính trị==
==Philosophy, religion and politics==
Critic [[Terry Eagleton]] situates Lawrence on the radical [[right wing]], as hostile to democracy, liberalism, socialism, and egalitarianism, though never formally embracing fascism,<ref>{{Cite book|title=The English novel: an introduction|last=Eagleton|first=Terry|publisher=Wiley-Blackwell|year=2005|pages=258–260}}</ref> as he died before it reached its zenith. Lawrence's opinion of the masses is discussed in detail by Professor [[John Carey (critic)|John Carey]] in ''The Intellectuals and the Masses'' (1992), and he quotes a 1908 letter from Lawrence to Blanche Jennings:
 
Earlier, Harrison<ref>John R. Harrison (1966) The Reactionaries: Yeats, Lewis, Pound, Eliot, Lawrence: A Study of the Anti-Democratic Intelligentsia (Victor Gollancz, London)</ref> had drawn attention to the vein of sadism that runs through Lawrence's writing.
 
==Các tác phẩm văn học==
==Written works==
 
===NovelsTiểu thuyết===
Lawrence is perhaps best known for his novels ''[[Sons and Lovers]]'', ''[[The Rainbow]]'', ''[[Women in Love]]'' and ''[[Lady Chatterley's Lover]]''. Within these Lawrence explores the possibilities for life within an industrial setting. In particular Lawrence is concerned with the nature of relationships that can be had within such a setting. Though often classed as a [[Literary realism|realist]], Lawrence in fact uses his characters to give form to his personal philosophy. His depiction of sexual activity, though seen as shocking when he first published in the early 20th century, has its roots in this highly personal way of thinking and being. It is worth noting that Lawrence was very interested in the [[Haptic communication|sense of touch]] and that his focus on physical intimacy has its roots in a desire to restore an emphasis on the body, and re-balance it with what he perceived to be Western civilisation's over-emphasis on the mind.{{citation needed|date=February 2014}}
 
In his later years Lawrence developed the potentialities of the short novel form in ''[[St Mawr]]'', ''[[The Virgin and the Gypsy]]'' and ''[[The Escaped Cock]]''.
 
===ShortTruyện storiesngắn===
Lawrence's best-known short stories include "[[The Captain's Doll]]", "[[The Fox (short story)|The Fox]]", "[[The Ladybird]]", "[[Odour of Chrysanthemums]]", "[[The Princess (story)|The Princess]]", "[[The Rocking-Horse Winner]]", "[[St Mawr]]", "[[The Virgin and the Gypsy]]" and "[[The Woman who Rode Away]]". (''The Virgin and the Gypsy'' was published as a [[novella]] after he died.) Among his most praised collections is ''[[The Prussian Officer and Other Stories]]'', published in 1914. His collection ''The Woman Who Rode Away and Other Stories'', published in 1928, develops the theme of leadership that Lawrence also explored in novels such as ''Kangaroo, [[The Plumed Serpent]]'' and ''Fanny and Annie''.
 
===PoetryThi ca===
{{original research section|date=May 2014}}
Although best known for his novels, Lawrence wrote almost 800 poems, most of them relatively short. His first poems were written in 1904 and two of his poems, "Dreams Old" and "Dreams Nascent", were among his earliest published works in ''The English Review''. His early works clearly place him in the school of [[Georgian poets]], a group not only named after the reigning monarch but also to the [[romantic poet]]s of the previous [[Georgian period]] whose work they were trying to emulate.<ref>"The Georgian Poets", ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'':[http://www.oxforddnb.com/templates/theme-print.jsp?articleid=95604]</ref> What typified the entire movement, and Lawrence's poems of the time, were well-worn poetic [[Trope (linguistics)|tropes]] and deliberately archaic language. Many of these poems displayed what [[John Ruskin]] referred to as the [[pathetic fallacy]], the tendency to ascribe human emotions to animals and even inanimate objects.
Two notebooks of Lawrence's unprinted verse were posthumously published as ''Last Poems'' and ''More Pansies''. These contain two of Lawrence's most famous poems about death, "Bavarian Gentians" and "The Ship of Death".
 
===LiteraryPhê criticismbình văn chuơng===
Lawrence's criticism of other authors often provides insight into his own thinking and writing. Of particular note is his ''[[Study of Thomas Hardy and Other Essays]]''.<ref>''The Bloomsbury Guide to English Literature'', ed. Marion Wynne Davies (New York Prentice Hall, 1990), p. 667.</ref> In ''[[Studies in Classic American Literature]]'' Lawrence's responses to writers like [[Walt Whitman]], [[Herman Melville]] and [[Edgar Allan Poe]] also shed light on his craft.<ref>"D. H. Lawrence's Discovery of American Literature" by A. Banerjee, ''Sewanee Review'', Volume 119, Number 3, Summer 2011, pp. 469-475.</ref>
 
==LadyVụ án Phu nhân Chatterley trial==
{{main|R v Penguin Books Ltd.}}
A heavily censored abridgement of ''[[Lady Chatterley's Lover]]'' was published in the United States by [[Alfred A. Knopf]] in 1928. This edition was posthumously re-issued in paperback in America both by Signet Books and by [[Penguin Books]] in 1946.{{citation needed|date=August 2012}} When the full unexpurgated edition of Lady Chatterley's Lover was published by Penguin Books in Britain in 1960, the trial of Penguin under the [[Obscene Publications Act 1959|Obscene Publications Act]] of 1959 became a major public event and a test of the new obscenity law. The 1959 act (introduced by [[Roy Jenkins]]) had made it possible for publishers to escape conviction if they could show that a work was of literary merit. One of the objections was to the frequent use of the word "fuck" and its derivatives and the word "cunt".
The Penguin second edition, published in 1961, contains a publisher's dedication, which reads: "For having published this book, Penguin Books were prosecuted under the Obscene Publications Act, 1959 at the [[Old Bailey]] in London from 20 October to 2 November 1960. This edition is therefore dedicated to the twelve jurors, three women and nine men, who returned a verdict of 'Not Guilty' and thus made D. H. Lawrence's last novel available for the first time to the public in the United Kingdom."
 
==Thanh danh sau khi qua đời==
==Posthumous reputation==
The obituaries shortly after Lawrence's death were, with the notable exception of [[E. M. Forster]], unsympathetic or hostile. However, there were those who articulated a more favourable recognition of the significance of this author's life and works. For example, his longtime friend [[Catherine Carswell]] summed up his life in a letter to the periodical ''[[Time and Tide (magazine)|Time and Tide]]'' published on 16 March 1930. In response to his critics, she claimed:
 
Lawrence held seemingly contradictory views of feminism. The evidence of his written works indicates an overwhelming commitment to representing women as strong, independent and complex; he produced major works in which young, self-directing female characters were central. A number of feminist critics, notably [[Kate Millett]], have criticised, indeed ridiculed Lawrence's [[Gender politics|sexual politics]], Millett claiming that he uses his female characters as mouthpieces to promote his creed of male supremacy.<ref>{{Cite book|author=Millett, Kate|title=Sexual Politics|year=2000|first=1969|publisher=University of Chicago Press|chapter=III: The Literary Reflection|isbn=0-252-06889-0}}</ref> This damaged his reputation in some quarters, although [[Norman Mailer]] came to Lawrence's defence in ''The Prisoner of Sex'' in 1971.<ref>{{Cite web|author=Mailer, Norman|title=The Prisoner of Sex|url=http://www.harpers.org/archive/1971/03/0021207|date=March 1971|publisher=Harper's Magazine|accessdate=13 September 2009}} and {{Cite book|author=Mailer, Norman|title=Prisoner of Sex|date=January 1971|publisher=Little Brown|isbn=0-316-54413-2}}</ref> Yet Lawrence continues to find an audience, and the ongoing publication of [[The Cambridge Edition of the Letters and Works of D. H. Lawrence|a new scholarly edition of his letters]] and writings has demonstrated the range of his achievement.
 
==PaintingHội họa==
D. H. Lawrence had a lifelong interest in painting, which became one of his main forms of expression in his last years. His paintings were exhibited at the Warren Gallery in London's [[Mayfair]] in 1929. The exhibition was extremely controversial, with many of the 13,000&nbsp;people visiting mainly to gawk. The ''[[Daily Express]]'' claimed, "''[[Fight with an Amazon]]'' represents a hideous, bearded man holding a fair-haired woman in his lascivious grip while wolves with dripping jaws look on expectantly, [this] is frankly indecent". But several artists and art experts praised the paintings. [[Gwen John]], reviewing the exhibition in ''Everyman'', spoke of Lawrence's "stupendous gift of self-expression" and singled out ''The Finding of Moses'', ''Red Willow Trees'' and ''Boccaccio Story'' as "pictures of real beauty and great vitality". Others singled out ''Contadini'' for special praise. After a complaint, the police seized thirteen of the twenty-five paintings (including ''Boccaccio Story'' and ''Contadini''). Despite declarations of support from many writers, artists and members of Parliament, Lawrence was able to recover his paintings only by agreeing never to exhibit them in England again. The largest collection of the paintings is now at La Fonda de Taos<ref>[http://www.lafondataos.com/dhlawrence.html Lafondataos.com]</ref> hotel in [[Taos, New Mexico]]. Several others, including ''Boccaccio Story'' and ''Resurrection'', are at the Humanities Research Centre of the [[University of Texas at Austin]].
 
==Một số tác phẩm tài liệu về cuộc đời của Lawrence==
==Selected depictions of Lawrence's life==
* ''[[Priest of Love]]'': a 1981 film based on the non-fiction biography of Lawrence of the same name. It starred [[Ian McKellen]] as Lawrence. The film is mostly focused on Lawrence's stay in [[Taos, New Mexico]], although the source biography covers most of his life.
* ''Coming Through'': a 1985 film about Lawrence who is portrayed by [[Kenneth Branagh]].<ref name="test">{{IMDb title|0088943|Coming Through (1985)}}</ref>
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