Khác biệt giữa các bản “D. H. Lawrence”

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{{Infobox writer <!-- for more information see [[:Template:Infobox writer/doc]] -->
| name = D. H. Lawrence
*'''Tiểu thuyết:'''<br/>''[[Những đứa con trai và những người tình]]<br/>[[Cầu vồng (tiểu thuyết)|Cầu vồng]]<br/>[[Những người đàn bà đang yêu]]<br/>[[Người tình của phu nhân Chatterley]]''
*'''Truyện ngắn:'''<br/>[[Hương cúc]]<br/>[[Cô gái đồng trinh và chàng du tử]]<br/>[[Con ngựa về nhất]]}}
| influences = [[Joseph Conrad]], [[Thomas Hardy]], [[J. P. Jacobsen]],<ref>{{Citechú bookthích sách|title=The Letters of D. H. Lawrence|last=Roberts (eds.)|first=Warren|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1987|pages=507}}</ref> [[Herman Melville]], [[Friedrich Nietzsche]],<ref>{{citechú thích booksách |url= |title=The Visionary D. H. Lawrence: Beyond Philosophy and Art |first=Montgomery |last= Robert |isbn=978-0-521-11242-0 |date=2009-06-04}}</ref> [[Arthur Schopenhauer]], [[Lev Shestov]],<ref>Park, See-Young:"Notes & Queries;Jun2004, Vol. 51 Issue 2, p165"</ref> [[Walt Whitman]]
| influenced = [[Charles Bukowski]], [[Anthony Burgess]], [[Ronald Verlin Cassill]], [[Aldous Huxley]], [[Doris Lessing]], [[Anaïs Nin]], [[Joyce Carol Oates]], [[Octavio Paz]], [[Dylan Thomas]], [[Tennessee Williams]]
'''David Herbert Lawrence''' (11 tháng 9 1885&nbsp;– 2 tháng 3 1930) là một tiểu thuyết gia, nhà thơ, nhà viết kịch, viết luận, nhà phê bình văn chương và họa sĩ người Anh, dưới bút danh '''D. H. Lawrence'''. Những tác phẩm nối tiếp nhau của ông, cũng như nhiều tác phẩm khác, đã phản ánh mặt trái vô nhân tính của thời kỳ hiện đại và công nghiệp hóa. Những nội dung mà Lawrence đi sâu khám phá bao gồm sự lành mạnh về cảm xúc, sức sống, tính tự phát và bản năng.
Những tư tưởng của Lawrence khiến ông có nhiều kẻ thủ, ông phải chịu đựng những ngược đãi, kiểm duyệt, xuyên tạc của chính quyền đối với những tác phẩm đầy sáng tạo trong suốt nửa cuối cuộc đời, trong đó có nhiều năm ông tự đày ải mình mà ông gọi là "cuộc hành huơng về nơi hoang dã". <ref>"It has been a savage enough pilgrimage these last four years" Letter to J. M. Murry, 2 February 1923.</ref> Lúc qua đời, công chúng biết đến ông như một người viết truyện khiêu dâm, một kẻ đã lãng phí tài năng lớn của mình. [[E. M. Forster]], trong một bản cáo phó, đã lên tiếng thách thức dư luận và gọi ông là "Tiểu thuyết gia sáng tạo bật nhất trong thế hệ của chúng ta."<ref>Letter to ''[[The Nation and Atheneum]]'', 29 March 1930.</ref> Sau đó, một nhà phê bình có sức ảnh hưởng lớn ở [[Đại học Cambridge]] là [[F. R. Leavis]] đã bênh vực cho cả tính chính trực về phuơng diện nghệ thuật và tính nghiêm túc về phuơng diện đạo đức của ông, qua đó đặt những tiểu thuyết của Lawrence's nằm trong số những tác phẩm truyền thống kinh điển của tiểu thuyết Anh.
==Cuộc đời và sự nghiệp==
===Thời niên thiếu===
[[FileTập tin:DH Lawrence 1906.jpg|thumb|right|D. H. Lawrence năm 21 tuổi (1906)]]
Là con thứ tư của Arthur John Lawrence, một thợ mỏ ít học vấn, và Lydia (tên thời con gái là Beardsall), từng là giáo viên, nhưng vì những khó khăn tài chính của gia đình, phải làm thợ thủ công trong một xuởng đăng-ten,<ref>[ DH Lawrence - The life and death of author, David Herbert Lawrence]</ref> Lawrence sống những năm đầu trong một thị trấn khai thác than mỏ ở [[Eastwood, Nottinghamshire|Eastwood]], Nottinghamshire. Ngôi nhà nơi ông sinh ra ở Eastwood, số 8a đường Victoria, ngày nay là bảo tàng nơi khai sinh D.H. Lawrence ([[D.H. Lawrence Birthplace Museum]]).<ref>[ Broxtowe Borough Council: D. H. Lawrence Heritage<!-- bot-generated title -->] at</ref> Gia cảnh thuộc tầng lớp công nhân, cùng với những căng thẳng trong mối quan hệ giữa cha mẹ trở thành nguồn nguyên liệu thô cho một số tác phẩm đầu tay của ông. Sau đó Lawrence thuờng về quên và viết những tác phẩm về thị trấn Underwood kế bên, gọi nó là "quê huơng của trái tim tôi"<ref>Letter to [[Rolf Gardiner]], 3 December 1926.</ref>, lấy nó làm bối cảnh cho nhiều tiểu thuyết của ông.
Lawrence and Weekley soon went back to Italy, staying in a cottage in Fiascherino on the [[Gulf of Spezia]]. Here he started writing the first draft of a work of fiction that was to be transformed into two of his better-known novels, ''[[The Rainbow]]'' and ''[[Women in Love]]''. While writing ''Women in Love'' in Cornwall during 1916–17, Lawrence developed a strong and possibly romantic relationship with a Cornish farmer named William Henry Hocking.<ref>Maddox, Brenda. ''D. H. Lawrence: The Story of a Marriage.'' New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. ISBN 0-671-68712-3</ref> Although it is not absolutely clear if their relationship was sexual, Frieda said she believed it was. Lawrence's fascination with the theme of [[homosexuality]], which is overtly manifested in ''Women in Love'', could be related to his own sexual orientation.<ref>Francis Spalding, ''[[Duncan Grant]]: A Biography''. (1997) p. 169-170: "Lawrence's views (i.e. warning [[David Garnett]] against homosexual tendencies), as [[Quentin Bell]] was the first to suggest and [[S. P. Rosenbaum]] has argued conclusively, were stirred by a dread of his own homosexual susceptibilities, which are revealed in his writings, notably the cancelled prologue to ''Women in Love''"</ref> In a letter written during 1913, he writes, "I should like to know why nearly every man that approaches greatness tends to homosexuality, whether he admits it or not&nbsp;..."<ref>Letter to Henry Savage, 2 December 1913</ref> He is also quoted as saying, "I believe the nearest I've come to perfect love was with a young coal-miner when I was about 16."<ref>Quoted in ''My Life and Times, Octave Five, 1918–1923'' by [[Compton MacKenzie]] pp. 167–168</ref>
Eventually, Frieda obtained her divorce. The couple returned to Britain shortly before the outbreak of World War I and were married on 13 July 1914. At this time, Lawrence worked with London intellectuals and writers such as [[Dora Marsden]] and the people involved with ''[[The Egoist (periodical)|The Egoist]]'' ([[T.S. Eliot]], [[Ezra Pound]], and others). ''The Egoist'', an important Modernist literary magazine, published some of his work. He was also reading and adapting [[Filippo Tommaso Marinetti|Marinetti]]'s ''[[Futurist Manifesto]]''.<ref>See the chapter "Rooms in the ''Egoist'' Hotel," and esp. p. 53, in {{Citechú bookthích sách
| last = Clarke
| first = Bruce
[[Image:DHLawrenceChapelTaosNM.jpg|thumb|right|Chapel east of [[Taos, New Mexico|Taos]], [[New Mexico]], where Lawrence's ashes are interred]]
[[FileTập tin:DH Lawrence birthplace museum - geograph-1814503.jpg|thumb|right|[[D.H. Lawrence Birthplace Museum]] in [[Eastwood, Nottinghamshire]].]]
The return to Italy allowed Lawrence to renew old friendships; during these years he was particularly close to [[Aldous Huxley]], who was to edit the first collection of Lawrence's letters after his death, along with a memoir. With artist [[Earl Brewster]], Lawrence visited a number of local archaeological sites in April 1927. The resulting essays describing these visits to old tombs were written up and collected together as ''[[Sketches of Etruscan Places and other Italian essays|Sketches of Etruscan Places]],'' a book that contrasts the lively past with [[Benito Mussolini]]'s fascism. Lawrence continued to produce fiction, including short stories and ''[[The Escaped Cock]]'' (also published as ''The Man Who Died''), an unorthodox reworking of the story of Jesus Christ's [[Resurrection of Jesus|Resurrection]]. During these final years Lawrence renewed a serious interest in oil painting. Official harassment persisted and an exhibition of some of these pictures at the Warren Gallery in London was raided by the police in mid 1929 and a number of works were confiscated.
===Cái chết===
==Triết học, tôn giáo và chính trị==
Critic [[Terry Eagleton]] situates Lawrence on the radical [[right wing]], as hostile to democracy, liberalism, socialism, and egalitarianism, though never formally embracing fascism,<ref>{{Citechú bookthích sách|title=The English novel: an introduction|last=Eagleton|first=Terry|publisher=Wiley-Blackwell|year=2005|pages=258–260}}</ref> as he died before it reached its zenith. Lawrence's opinion of the masses is discussed in detail by Professor [[John Carey (critic)|John Carey]] in ''The Intellectuals and the Masses'' (1992), and he quotes a 1908 letter from Lawrence to Blanche Jennings:
{{quote|If I had my way, I would build a lethal chamber as big as the Crystal Palace, with a military band playing softly, and a Cinematograph working brightly; then I'd go out in the back streets and main streets and bring them in, all the sick, the halt, and the maimed; I would lead them gently, and they would smile me a weary thanks; and the band would softly bubble out the "Hallelujah Chorus".
<ref>{{Citechú bookthích sách|title=Europe: A History|last=Davies|first=Norman|publisher=HarperPerennial|year=1996|pages=860}}</ref>}}
More of Lawrence's political ideas can be seen in his letters to [[Bertrand Russell]] around the year 1915, where he voices his opposition to enfranchising the working class, his hostility to the burgeoning labour movements, and disparages the [[French Revolution]], referring to "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" as the "three-fanged serpent." Rather than a republic, Lawrence called for an absolute Dictator and equivalent Dictatrix to lord over the lower peoples.<ref>{{Citechú bookthích sách|title=The Letters of D. H. Lawrence|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2002|pages=365–366}}</ref>
Earlier, Harrison<ref>John R. Harrison (1966) The Reactionaries: Yeats, Lewis, Pound, Eliot, Lawrence: A Study of the Anti-Democratic Intelligentsia (Victor Gollancz, London)</ref> had drawn attention to the vein of sadism that runs through Lawrence's writing.
===Tiểu thuyết===
Lawrence is perhaps best known for his novels ''[[Sons and Lovers]]'', ''[[The Rainbow]]'', ''[[Women in Love]]'' and ''[[Lady Chatterley's Lover]]''. Within these Lawrence explores the possibilities for life within an industrial setting. In particular Lawrence is concerned with the nature of relationships that can be had within such a setting. Though often classed as a [[Literary realism|realist]], Lawrence in fact uses his characters to give form to his personal philosophy. His depiction of sexual activity, though seen as shocking when he first published in the early 20th century, has its roots in this highly personal way of thinking and being. It is worth noting that Lawrence was very interested in the [[Haptic communication|sense of touch]] and that his focus on physical intimacy has its roots in a desire to restore an emphasis on the body, and re-balance it with what he perceived to be Western civilisation's over-emphasis on the mind.{{citation needed|date=February 2014}}
In his later years Lawrence developed the potentialities of the short novel form in ''[[St Mawr]]'', ''[[The Virgin and the Gypsy]]'' and ''[[The Escaped Cock]]''.
===Thi ca===
{{original research section|date=May 2014}}
Although best known for his novels, Lawrence wrote almost 800 poems, most of them relatively short. His first poems were written in 1904 and two of his poems, "Dreams Old" and "Dreams Nascent", were among his earliest published works in ''The English Review''. His early works clearly place him in the school of [[Georgian poets]], a group not only named after the reigning monarch but also to the [[romantic poet]]s of the previous [[Georgian period]] whose work they were trying to emulate.<ref>"The Georgian Poets", ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'':[ "The Georgian Poets", ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'']</ref> What typified the entire movement, and Lawrence's poems of the time, were well-worn poetic [[Trope (linguistics)|tropes]] and deliberately archaic language. Many of these poems displayed what [[John Ruskin]] referred to as the [[pathetic fallacy]], the tendency to ascribe human emotions to animals and even inanimate objects.
Just as [[World War I|the First World War]] dramatically changed the work of many of the poets who saw service in the trenches, Lawrence's own work saw a dramatic change, during his years in Cornwall. During this time, he wrote [[free verse]] influenced by [[Walt Whitman]].<ref>M. Gwyn Thomas, "Whitman in the British Isles", in ''Walt Whitman and the World'', ed. Gay Wilson Allen and Ed Folsom (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995), p.16.</ref> He set forth his manifesto for much of his later verse in the introduction to ''New Poems''. "We can get rid of the stereotyped movements and the old hackneyed associations of sound or sense. We can break down those artificial conduits and canals through which we do so love to force our utterance. We can break the stiff neck of habit&nbsp;[…] But we cannot positively prescribe any motion, any rhythm."
Aldous Huxley also defended Lawrence in his introduction to a collection of letters published in 1932. However, the most influential advocate of Lawrence's contribution to literature was the [[Cambridge]] literary critic [[F. R. Leavis]] who asserted that the author had made an important contribution to the tradition of English fiction. Leavis stressed that ''The Rainbow'', ''Women in Love'', and the short stories and tales were major works of art. Later, the [[Lady Chatterley's Lover|Lady Chatterley Trial]] of 1960, and subsequent publication of the book, ensured Lawrence's popularity (and notoriety) with a wider public.
Lawrence held seemingly contradictory views of feminism. The evidence of his written works indicates an overwhelming commitment to representing women as strong, independent and complex; he produced major works in which young, self-directing female characters were central. A number of feminist critics, notably [[Kate Millett]], have criticised, indeed ridiculed Lawrence's [[Gender politics|sexual politics]], Millett claiming that he uses his female characters as mouthpieces to promote his creed of male supremacy.<ref>{{Citechú bookthích sách|author=Millett, Kate|title=Sexual Politics|year=2000|first=1969|publisher=University of Chicago Press|chapter=III: The Literary Reflection|isbn=0-252-06889-0}}</ref> This damaged his reputation in some quarters, although [[Norman Mailer]] came to Lawrence's defence in ''The Prisoner of Sex'' in 1971.<ref>{{Citechú thích web|author=Mailer, Norman|title=The Prisoner of Sex|url=|date=March 1971|publisher=Harper's Magazine|accessdate=13 September 2009}} and {{Citechú thích booksách|author=Mailer, Norman|title=Prisoner of Sex|date=January 1971|publisher=Little Brown|isbn=0-316-54413-2}}</ref> Yet Lawrence continues to find an audience, and the ongoing publication of [[The Cambridge Edition of the Letters and Works of D. H. Lawrence|a new scholarly edition of his letters]] and writings has demonstrated the range of his achievement.
==Hội họa==
* ''D. H. Lawrence's Paintings'', ed. Keith Sagar, London: Chaucer Press, 2003.
* ''The Collected Art Works of D. H. Lawrence'', ed. Tetsuji Kohno, Tokyo: Sogensha, 2004.
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==Các tác phẩm viết về Lawrence==
* [[John Worthen]] (1979) ''D. H. Lawrence and the Idea of the Novel'' (London and Basingstoke, Macmillan).
* T R Wright (2000) ''D H Lawrence and the Bible'' (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press)
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==Tham khảo==
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==Liên kết ngoài==
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|NAME= Lawrence, D. H.
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[[CategoryThể loại:D. H. Lawrence| ]]
[[CategoryThể loại:1885 births]]
[[CategoryThể loại:1930 deaths]]
[[CategoryThể loại:20th-century British writers]]
[[CategoryThể loại:20th-century dramatists and playwrights]]
[[CategoryThể loại:Alumni of the University of Nottingham]]
[[CategoryThể loại:Deaths from tuberculosis]]
[[CategoryThể loại:English novelists]]
[[CategoryThể loại:English short story writers]]
[[CategoryThể loại:Imagists]]
[[CategoryThể loại:Infectious disease deaths in France]]
[[CategoryThể loại:James Tait Black Memorial Prize recipients]]
[[CategoryThể loại:Modernist writers]]
[[CategoryThể loại:People educated at Nottingham High School]]
[[CategoryThể loại:People from Eastwood, Nottinghamshire]]
[[CategoryThể loại:Obscenity controversies]]