Khác biệt giữa các bản “D. H. Lawrence”

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'''David Herbert Lawrence''' (11 tháng 9 1885  – 2 tháng 3 1930) là một tiểu thuyết gia, nhà thơ, nhà viết kịch, viết luận, nhà phê bình văn chương và họa sĩ người Anh, dưới bút danh '''D. H. Lawrence'''. Những tác phẩm nối tiếp nhau của ông, cũng như nhiều tác phẩm khác, đã phản ánh mặt trái vô nhân tính của thời kỳ hiện đại và công nghiệp hóa. Những nội dung mà Lawrence đi sâu khám phá bao gồm sự lành mạnh về cảm xúc, sức sống, tính tự phát và bản năng.
 
Những tư tưởng của Lawrence khiến ông có nhiều kẻ thủ, ông phải chịu đựng những ngược đãi, kiểm duyệt, xuyên tạc của chính quyền đối với những tác phẩm đầy sáng tạo trong suốt nửa cuối cuộc đời, trong đó có nhiều năm ông tự đày ải mình mà ông gọi là "cuộc hành huơng về nơi hoang dã".<ref>"It has been a savage enough pilgrimage these last four years" Letter to J. M. Murry, 2 February 1923.</ref> Lúc qua đời, công chúng biết đến ông như một người viết truyện khiêu dâm, một kẻ đã lãng phí tài năng lớn của mình. [[E. M. Forster]], trong một bản cáo phó, đã lên tiếng thách thức dư luận và gọi ông là "Tiểu thuyết gia sáng tạo bật nhất trong thế hệ của chúng ta."<ref>Letter to ''[[The Nation and Atheneum]]'', 29 March 1930.</ref> Sau đó, một nhà phê bình có sức ảnh hưởng lớn ở [[Đại học Cambridge]] là [[F. R. Leavis]] đã bênh vực cho cả tính chính trực về phuơng diện nghệ thuật và tính nghiêm túc về phuơng diện đạo đức của ông, qua đó đặt những tiểu thuyết của Lawrence's nằm trong số những tác phẩm truyền thống kinh điển của tiểu thuyết Anh.
Lawrence and Frieda returned to Britain in 1913 for a short visit, during which they encountered and befriended critic [[John Middleton Murry]] and New Zealand-born short story writer [[Katherine Mansfield]]. Lawrence was able to meet Welsh tramp poet [[W. H. Davies]], whose work, much of which was inspired by nature, he greatly admired. Davies collected autographs, and was particularly keen to obtain Lawrence's. [[Georgian poetry]] publisher [[Edward Marsh (polymath)|Edward Marsh]] was able to secure an autograph (probably as part of a signed poem), and invited Lawrence and Frieda to meet Davies in London on 28 July, under his supervision. Lawrence was immediately captivated by the poet and later invited Davies to join Frieda and himself in Germany. Despite his early enthusiasm for Davies' work, however, Lawrence's opinion changed after reading ''Foliage'' and he commented after reading ''Nature Poems'' in Italy that they seemed ".. so thin, one can hardly feel them".<ref>Stonesifer, R.J. (1963), ''W. H. Davies - A Critical Biography'', London, Jonathan Cape.</ref>
 
Lawrence and Weekley soon went back to Italy, staying in a cottage in Fiascherino on the [[Gulf of Spezia]]. Here he started writing the first draft of a work of fiction that was to be transformed into two of his better-known novels, ''[[The Rainbow]]'' and ''[[Women in Love]]''. While writing ''Women in Love'' in Cornwall during 1916–17, Lawrence developed a strong and possibly romantic relationship with a Cornish farmer named William Henry Hocking.<ref>Maddox, Brenda. ''D. H. Lawrence: The Story of a Marriage.'' New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. ISBN 0-671-68712-3</ref> Although it is not absolutely clear if their relationship was sexual, Frieda said she believed it was. Lawrence's fascination with the theme of [[homosexuality]], which is overtly manifested in ''Women in Love'', could be related to his own sexual orientation.<ref>Francis Spalding, ''[[Duncan Grant]]: A Biography''. (1997) p. 169-170: "Lawrence's views (i.e. warning [[David Garnett]] against homosexual tendencies), as [[Quentin Bell]] was the first to suggest and [[S. P. Rosenbaum]] has argued conclusively, were stirred by a dread of his own homosexual susceptibilities, which are revealed in his writings, notably the cancelled prologue to ''Women in Love''"</ref> In a letter written during 1913, he writes, "I should like to know why nearly every man that approaches greatness tends to homosexuality, whether he admits it or not&nbsp; ..."<ref>Letter to Henry Savage, 2 December 1913</ref> He is also quoted as saying, "I believe the nearest I've come to perfect love was with a young coal-miner when I was about 16."<ref>Quoted in ''My Life and Times, Octave Five, 1918–1923'' by [[Compton MacKenzie]] pp. 167–168</ref>
 
Eventually, Frieda obtained her divorce. The couple returned to Britain shortly before the outbreak of World War I and were married on 13 July 1914. At this time, Lawrence worked with London intellectuals and writers such as [[Dora Marsden]] and the people involved with ''[[The Egoist (periodical)|The Egoist]]'' ([[T.S. Eliot]], [[Ezra Pound]], and others). ''The Egoist'', an important Modernist literary magazine, published some of his work. He was also reading and adapting [[Filippo Tommaso Marinetti|Marinetti]]'s ''[[Futurist Manifesto]]''.<ref>See the chapter "Rooms in the ''Egoist'' Hotel," and esp. p. 53, in {{chú thích sách
A brief voyage to England at the end of 1923 was a failure and he soon returned to Taos, convinced that his life as an author now lay in America. However, in March 1925 he suffered a near fatal attack of [[malaria]] and [[tuberculosis]] while on a third visit to Mexico. Although he eventually recovered, the diagnosis of his condition obliged him to return once again to Europe. He was dangerously ill and the poor health limited his ability to travel for the remainder of his life. The Lawrences made their home in a villa in Northern Italy, living near [[Florence]] while he wrote ''[[The Virgin and the Gypsy|The Virgin and the Gipsy]]'' and the various versions of ''[[Lady Chatterley's Lover]]'' (1928). The latter book, his last major novel, was initially published in private editions in Florence and Paris and reinforced his notoriety. Lawrence responded robustly to those who claimed to be offended, penning a large number of satirical poems, published under the title of "Pansies" and "Nettles", as well as a tract on ''Pornography and Obscenity''.
 
[[ImageHình:DHLawrenceChapelTaosNM.jpg|thumb|right|Chapel east of [[Taos, New Mexico|Taos]], [[New Mexico]], where Lawrence's ashes are interred]]
[[Tập tin:DH Lawrence birthplace museum - geograph-1814503.jpg|thumb|right|[[D.H. Lawrence Birthplace Museum]] in [[Eastwood, Nottinghamshire]].]]
 
Although best known for his novels, Lawrence wrote almost 800 poems, most of them relatively short. His first poems were written in 1904 and two of his poems, "Dreams Old" and "Dreams Nascent", were among his earliest published works in ''The English Review''. His early works clearly place him in the school of [[Georgian poets]], a group not only named after the reigning monarch but also to the [[romantic poet]]s of the previous [[Georgian period]] whose work they were trying to emulate.<ref>[http://www.oxforddnb.com/templates/theme-print.jsp?articleid=95604 "The Georgian Poets", ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'']</ref> What typified the entire movement, and Lawrence's poems of the time, were well-worn poetic [[Trope (linguistics)|tropes]] and deliberately archaic language. Many of these poems displayed what [[John Ruskin]] referred to as the [[pathetic fallacy]], the tendency to ascribe human emotions to animals and even inanimate objects.
 
Just as [[World War I|the First World War]] dramatically changed the work of many of the poets who saw service in the trenches, Lawrence's own work saw a dramatic change, during his years in Cornwall. During this time, he wrote [[free verse]] influenced by [[Walt Whitman]].<ref>M. Gwyn Thomas, "Whitman in the British Isles", in ''Walt Whitman and the World'', ed. Gay Wilson Allen and Ed Folsom (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995), p.16.</ref> He set forth his manifesto for much of his later verse in the introduction to ''New Poems''. "We can get rid of the stereotyped movements and the old hackneyed associations of sound or sense. We can break down those artificial conduits and canals through which we do so love to force our utterance. We can break the stiff neck of habit&nbsp; […] But we cannot positively prescribe any motion, any rhythm."
 
Lawrence rewrote many of his novels several times to perfect them and similarly he returned to some of his early poems when they were collected in 1928. This was in part to fictionalise them, but also to remove some of the artifice of his first works. As he put in himself: "A young man is afraid of his demon and puts his hand over the demon's mouth sometimes and speaks for him."<ref>''Collected Poems'' (London: Martin Secker, 1928), pp.27-8.</ref> His best-known poems are probably those dealing with nature such as those in the collection ''Birds, Beasts and Flowers'', including the Tortoise poems and "Snake", one of his most frequently anthologised, displays some of his most frequent concerns; those of man's modern distance from nature and subtle hints at religious themes.
 
==Hội họa==
D. H. Lawrence had a lifelong interest in painting, which became one of his main forms of expression in his last years. His paintings were exhibited at the Warren Gallery in London's [[Mayfair]] in 1929. The exhibition was extremely controversial, with many of the 13,000&nbsp; people visiting mainly to gawk. The ''[[Daily Express]]'' claimed, "''[[Fight with an Amazon]]'' represents a hideous, bearded man holding a fair-haired woman in his lascivious grip while wolves with dripping jaws look on expectantly, [this] is frankly indecent". But several artists and art experts praised the paintings. [[Gwen John]], reviewing the exhibition in ''Everyman'', spoke of Lawrence's "stupendous gift of self-expression" and singled out ''The Finding of Moses'', ''Red Willow Trees'' and ''Boccaccio Story'' as "pictures of real beauty and great vitality". Others singled out ''Contadini'' for special praise. After a complaint, the police seized thirteen of the twenty-five paintings (including ''Boccaccio Story'' and ''Contadini''). Despite declarations of support from many writers, artists and members of Parliament, Lawrence was able to recover his paintings only by agreeing never to exhibit them in England again. The largest collection of the paintings is now at La Fonda de Taos<ref>[http://www.lafondataos.com/dhlawrence.html Lafondataos.com]</ref> hotel in [[Taos, New Mexico]]. Several others, including ''Boccaccio Story'' and ''Resurrection'', are at the Humanities Research Centre of the [[University of Texas at Austin]].
 
==Một số tác phẩm tài liệu về cuộc đời của Lawrence==