Khác biệt giữa các bản “D. H. Lawrence”

===Khởi nghiệp===
Mùa thu năm 1908, chàng trai trẻ vừa tốt nghiệp Lawrence bỏ lại ngôi nhà thời thơ ấu, chuyển đến Luân Đôn. Ông vẫn tiếp tục viết lách trong thời gian giảng dạy ở trường Davidson Road. Một vài bài thơ đầu tiên, được Jessie Chambers trình bày, đã giành được sự chú ý của [[Ford Madox Ford]], người sau này được biết đến dưới cái tên Ford Hermann Hueffer, biên tập của tạp chí ''[[The English Review]]'', một tờ báo có tầm ảnh hưởng lớn. Sau Hueffer cho đăng truyện ''[[Hương cúc]]''. Sau khi truyện được đăng trên tạp chí này, Heinemann, một nhà xuất bản ở Luân Đôn, đã đến mời Lawrence về làm việc. Sự nghiệp viết lách nghiêm túc của ông bắt đầu, dù ông vẫn dạy ở trường thêm một năm nữa. Không lâu sau khi bản in thử tiểu thuyết đầu tay của ông, ''[[Chim công trắng]]'', xuất hiện năm 1910, mẹ Lawrence qua đời vì ung thư. Chàng trai trẻ đau đớn tột cùng. Ông đã miêu tả những tháng sau ấy là một "năm đau ốm". Rõ ràng Lawrence có mối quan hệ vô cùng thân thiết với mẹ, và nỗi đau ấy đã trở thành bước ngoặt lớn trong đời ông, như việc bà Morel qua đời đã đánh dấu một cột mốc mới trong cuốn tiểu thuyết tự truyện ''[[Những đứa con trai và những người tình]]'' của ông, một tác phẩm thuật lại nhiều về quãng thời gian ông còn học ở tỉnh lẻ.
 
In 1911 Lawrence was introduced to [[Edward Garnett]], a [[publisher's reader]], who acted as a mentor, provided further encouragement, and became a valued friend, as did his son [[David Garnett|David]]. Throughout these months the young author revised ''Paul Morel'', the first draft of what became ''[[Sons and Lovers]]''. In addition, a teaching colleague, [[Helen Corke]], gave him access to her intimate diaries about an unhappy love affair, which formed the basis of ''[[The Trespasser (novel)|The Trespasser]]'', his second novel. In November 1911, he came down with a pneumonia again; once he recovered, Lawrence decided to abandon teaching in order to become a full-time author. He also broke off an engagement to Louie Burrows, an old friend from his days in Nottingham and Eastwood.
 
In March 1912 Lawrence met [[Frieda von Richthofen|Frieda Weekley (''née'' von Richthofen)]], with whom he was to share the rest of his life. Six years older than her new lover, she was married to [[Ernest Weekley]], his former modern languages professor at University College, Nottingham, and had three young children. She [[elopement|eloped]] with Lawrence to her parents' home in [[Metz]], a garrison town then in Germany near the disputed border with France. Their stay there included Lawrence's first encounter with tensions between Germany and France, when he was arrested and accused of being a British spy, before being released following an intervention from Frieda's father. After this incident, Lawrence left for a small hamlet to the south of [[Munich]], where he was joined by Frieda for their "honeymoon", later memorialised in the series of love poems titled ''Look! We Have Come Through'' (1917). 1912 also saw the first of Lawrence's so-called "mining plays", ''The Daughter-in-Law'', written in Nottingham dialect. The play was never to be performed, or even published, in Lawrence's lifetime.
 
From Germany they walked southwards across the [[Alps]] to Italy, a journey that was recorded in the first of his travel books, a collection of linked essays titled ''Twilight in Italy'' and the unfinished novel, ''Mr Noon''. During his stay in Italy, Lawrence completed the final version of ''Sons and Lovers'' that, when published in 1913, was acknowledged to be a vivid portrait of the realities of working class provincial life. Lawrence, though, had become so tired of the work that he allowed Edward Garnett to cut about a hundred pages from the text.
 
Lawrence and Frieda returned to Britain in 1913 for a short visit, during which they encountered and befriended critic [[John Middleton Murry]] and New Zealand-born short story writer [[Katherine Mansfield]]. Lawrence was able to meet Welsh tramp poet [[W. H. Davies]], whose work, much of which was inspired by nature, he greatly admired. Davies collected autographs, and was particularly keen to obtain Lawrence's. [[Georgian poetry]] publisher [[Edward Marsh (polymath)|Edward Marsh]] was able to secure an autograph (probably as part of a signed poem), and invited Lawrence and Frieda to meet Davies in London on 28 July, under his supervision. Lawrence was immediately captivated by the poet and later invited Davies to join Frieda and himself in Germany. Despite his early enthusiasm for Davies' work, however, Lawrence's opinion changed after reading ''Foliage'' and he commented after reading ''Nature Poems'' in Italy that they seemed ".. so thin, one can hardly feel them".<ref>Stonesifer, R.J. (1963), ''W. H. Davies - A Critical Biography'', London, Jonathan Cape.</ref>
 
Lawrence and Weekley soon went back to Italy, staying in a cottage in Fiascherino on the [[Gulf of Spezia]]. Here he started writing the first draft of a work of fiction that was to be transformed into two of his better-known novels, ''[[The Rainbow]]'' and ''[[Women in Love]]''. While writing ''Women in Love'' in Cornwall during 1916–17, Lawrence developed a strong and possibly romantic relationship with a Cornish farmer named William Henry Hocking.<ref>Maddox, Brenda. ''D. H. Lawrence: The Story of a Marriage.'' New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. ISBN 0-671-68712-3</ref> Although it is not absolutely clear if their relationship was sexual, Frieda said she believed it was. Lawrence's fascination with the theme of [[homosexuality]], which is overtly manifested in ''Women in Love'', could be related to his own sexual orientation.<ref>Francis Spalding, ''[[Duncan Grant]]: A Biography''. (1997) p. 169-170: "Lawrence's views (i.e. warning [[David Garnett]] against homosexual tendencies), as [[Quentin Bell]] was the first to suggest and [[S. P. Rosenbaum]] has argued conclusively, were stirred by a dread of his own homosexual susceptibilities, which are revealed in his writings, notably the cancelled prologue to ''Women in Love''"</ref> In a letter written during 1913, he writes, "I should like to know why nearly every man that approaches greatness tends to homosexuality, whether he admits it or not ..."<ref>Letter to Henry Savage, 2 December 1913</ref> He is also quoted as saying, "I believe the nearest I've come to perfect love was with a young coal-miner when I was about 16."<ref>Quoted in ''My Life and Times, Octave Five, 1918–1923'' by [[Compton MacKenzie]] pp. 167–168</ref>
 
Eventually, Frieda obtained her divorce. The couple returned to Britain shortly before the outbreak of World War I and were married on 13 July 1914. At this time, Lawrence worked with London intellectuals and writers such as [[Dora Marsden]] and the people involved with ''[[The Egoist (periodical)|The Egoist]]'' ([[T.S. Eliot]], [[Ezra Pound]], and others). ''The Egoist'', an important Modernist literary magazine, published some of his work. He was also reading and adapting [[Filippo Tommaso Marinetti|Marinetti]]'s ''[[Futurist Manifesto]]''.<ref>See the chapter "Rooms in the ''Egoist'' Hotel," and esp. p. 53, in {{chú thích sách
| last = Clarke
| first = Bruce
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| title = Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science
| publisher = U of Michigan P
| year = 1996
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| pages = 137–72
| url = http://books.google.com/books?id=07mk2Lx6Y-gC&pg=RA1-PA37
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| isbn = 978-0-472-10646-2}}</ref> He also met at this time the young Jewish artist [[Mark Gertler (artist)|Mark Gertler]], and they became for a time good friends; Lawrence would describe Gertler's 1916 anti-war painting, ''[[Merry-Go-Round (Gertler painting)|Merry-Go-Round]]'' as 'the best ''modern'' picture I have seen: I think it is great and true.'<ref>Haycock, ''A Crisis of Brilliance': Five Young British Artists and the Great War' (2009), 257</ref> Gertler would inspire the character Loerke (a sculptor) in ''Women in Love''. Weekley's German parentage and Lawrence's open contempt for militarism caused them to be viewed with suspicion in wartime Britain and to live in near destitution. ''The Rainbow'' (1915) was suppressed after an investigation into its alleged [[obscenity]] in 1915. Later, they were accused of spying and signalling to German submarines off the coast of [[Cornwall]] where they lived at [[Zennor]]. During this period he finished writing ''Women in Love'' in which he explored the destructive features of contemporary civilization through the evolving relationships of four major characters as they reflect upon the value of the arts, politics, economics, sexual experience, friendship and marriage. The novel is a bleak, bitter vision of humanity and proved impossible to publish in wartime conditions. Not published until 1920, it is now widely recognised{{who?|date=May 2014}} as an English novel of great dramatic force and intellectual subtlety.
 
In late 1917, after constant harassment by the armed forces authorities, Lawrence was forced to leave Cornwall at three days' notice under the terms of the [[Defence of the Realm Act]] (DORA). This persecution was later described in an autobiographical chapter of his Australian novel ''Kangaroo'', published in 1923. He spent some months in early 1918 in the small, rural village of [[Hermitage, Berkshire|Hermitage]] near [[Newbury, Berkshire]]. He then lived for just under a year (mid-1918 to early 1919) at Mountain Cottage, [[Middleton-by-Wirksworth]], [[Derbyshire]], where he wrote one of his most poetic short stories, ''The White Peacock''. Until 1919 he was compelled by poverty to shift from address to address and barely survived a severe attack of [[influenza]].
 
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