Khác biệt giữa các bản “Thành viên:Nhiêu Lộc/Sandbox”

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{| class="wikitable"
Chorus—of Prisoners.
|YEAR
|DATE
|EVENTS
|COUNTRY
|-
|1917
|October
|The October Revolution; Vladimir Lenin establishes a Communist government.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1922
|
|Joseph Stalin becomes general secretary of the Communist party.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1945
|February
|Poland’s postwar fate is decided at Yalta.
|Poland
|-
|1945
|February
|At Yalta, the Allies agree to allow the Soviets to retain positions in Eastern Europe.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1946
|February
|Hungary is declared a republic after the abolition of the monarchy.
|Hungary
|-
|1946
|November
|A Communist-dominated front takes control.
|Romania
|-
|1947
|January
|The Communist party gains control.
|Poland
|-
|1947
|August
|Elections give the Communist-dominated leftist block 46 percent of the vote.
|Hungary
|-
|1948
|May
|The Communist-dominated National Front wins an electoral victory.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1948
|June
|Soviets begin a blockade of Berlin, and Allies respond with an airlift.
|East Germany
|-
|1953
|March 5,
|Stalin dies; Nikita Khrushchev succeeds him.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1955
|May 14,
|The Warsaw Pact is formed.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1956
|June
|Strikes break out in Poznan; 57 people are killed.
|Poland
|-
|1956
|October /
 
November
Oh, what a pleasure once again
|Imre Nagy becomes prime minister; more than twenty thousand people are killed in two waves of Soviet invasions.
 
|Hungary
Freely to breathe the fresh air!
|-
 
|1956
In Heaven
|November
 
From|Nagy deathis wereplaced haveby escapedJanos Kadar.
|Hungary
 
|-
One of them.
|1961
 
|August
Let us in Heaven trust;
|The Berlin Wall is erected.
 
|East Germany
On Heaven depend our hopes:
|-
 
|1964
He will on our griefs look with pity.
|October
 
|Khrushchev is ousted and replaced as general secretary by Leonid Brezhnev.
On His goodness all things depend.
|Soviet Union
 
|-
All.
|1965
 
|July
Oh, liberty! oh, salvation!
|Nicolae Ceausescu becomes general secretary.
 
|Romania
Oh, God, upon our miseries have pity!
|-
 
|1968
Prisoner.
|January
 
|The beginning of the Prague Spring.
Silence! make no noise!
|Czechoslovakia
 
|-
Pizarro
|1968
 
|March
All.
|Student riots take place in Warsaw.
 
|Poland
Silence! make no noise!
|-
 
|1968
Pizarro
|August 31,
 
|Soviet troops lead a Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia.
Oh! what a pleasure once again
|Czechoslovakia
 
|-
Freely to breathe the fresh air!
|1969
 
|March
In Heaven
|Gustav Husak becomes general secretary.
 
|Czechoslovakia
From death we have escaped.
|-
|1970
|December
|Riots and strikes occur in Polish coastal cities; more than three hundred are reported killed.
|Poland
|-
|1971
|May
|Erich Honecker becomes general secretary.
|East Germany
|-
|1977
|January
|Charter 77 is circulated.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1977
|August
|Miners in the Jiu Valley strike over living standards and pension cuts.
|Romania
|-
|1978
|October 16,
|Cardinal Karol Wojtyla of Krakow is elected Pope, taking the name John Paul II.
|Poland
|-
|1980
|January 15,
|Five thousand demonstrators in Prague’s Wenceslas Square commemorate Jan Palach’s suicide in 1969; Vaclav Havel and other dissidents are arrested.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1980
|August
|Eighty thousand workers take over the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk; strikes break out throughout the country.
|Poland
|-
|1980
|August 31,
|Poland’s Communist government signs agreement with strike committee in Gdansk; Solidarity era begins.
|Poland
|-
|1981
|December 13,
|Martial law is imposed; Solidarity is banned; thousands are imprisoned.
|Poland
|-
|1985
|March 11,
|Mikhail Gorbachev is named as general secretary.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1986
|March 17,
|The Communist party approves “truly revolutionary changes” in the economy.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1987
|November
|More than ten thousand people demonstrate in Brasov.
|Romania
|-
|1987
|December
|Husak is replaced by Milos Jakes.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1988
|February 26,
|More than seven hundred thousand people protest in Azerbaijan and Armenia
|Soviet Union
|-
|1988
|May/August
|Massive strikes break out across the country; on both occasions, strikers demand restoration of Solidarity.
|Poland
|-
|1989
|February 6,
|First “roundtable” meeting takes place between government and Solidarity.
|Poland
|-
|1989
|February 11,
|The government approves the creation of independent parties.
|Hungary
|-
|1989
|March
|More than 75 thousand march in Budapest calling for the withdrawal of Soviet troops and free elections.
|Hungary
|-
|1989
|March
|Human rights activists send an open letter of protest to Ceausescu.
|Romania
|-
|1989
|March
|In the first free elections since 1917, scores of Party officials suffer humiliating defeats.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1989
|April 1,
|Soviet troops begin to withdraw from Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1989
|April 7,
|Government agress to relegalize Solidarity and hold partly free elections.
|Poland
|-
|1989
|May 2,
|Hungary begins dismantling its portion of the iron curtain along its border with Austria.
|Hungary
|-
|1989
|May 8,
|Janos Kadar is replaced by Karoly Grosz as general secretary.
|Hungary
|-
|1989
|June 4,
|Solidarity candidates triumph in Eastern Europe’s freest elections ever held under Communist rule.
|Poland
|-
|1989
|June 16,
|Imre Nagy is reburied in a huge anti-Communist rally.
|Hungary
|-
|1989
|July
|Ceausescu plays host to Warsaw Pact leaders.
|Romania
|-
|1989
|August 24,
|Tadeusz Mazowiecki is confirmed as prime minister and forms the first non-Communist government in Eastern Europe since 1948.
|Poland
|-
|1989
|September 10,
|Border with Austria is opened to East Germans wishing to leave.
|Hungary
|-
|1989
|October 7,
|The Communist party dissolves itself and becomes the Socialist party.
|Hungary
|-
|1989
|October 7,
|Mikhail Gorbachev warns Honecker that “life punishes those who delay.”
|East Germany
|-
|1989
|October 9,
|Honecker’s orders for the police to shoot demonstrators are not obeyed; weekly demonstrations continue every Monday in Leipzig.
|East Germany
|-
|1989
|October 18,
|Honecker is ousted and is replaced by Egon Krenz.
|East Germany
|-
|1989
|October 23,
|Hungary declares itself “independent and legal.”
|Hungary
|-
|1989
|November 5,
|Five hundred thousand demonstrators gather inEast Berlin.
|East Germany
|-
|1989
|November 7,
|The government resigns.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|December 7,
|The government resigns.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|November 9,
|Tne Berlin Wall is opened; thousands of East Germans visit the West.
|East Germany
|-
|1989
|November 17,
|Anti-government demonstration in Wenceslas Square is brutally broken up by police.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|November 19,
|The Civic Forum is created in the Magic Lantern Theater.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|November 20,
|More than two hundred thousand people protest in Prague; demonstrations continue and grow daily.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|November 24,
|Alexander Dubcek returns to Prague; Milos Jakes and the Communist leadership resign.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|November 27,
|The Civic Forum directs a two-hour general strike in support of democracy.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|November 28,
|The Communist party promises to hold free elections and to abandon its “leading role.”
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|December 3,
|Egon Krenz. the Pofeburo. and the Central Committee all resign.
|East Germany
|-
|1989
|December 10,
|A new government with a non-Communist majority is formed.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1989
|December 15,
|The first demonstrations take place in Timisoara.
|Romania
|-
|1989
|December 17,
|Ceausescu orders the army and police to shoot demonstrators in Timisoara; thousands are killed.
|Romania
|-
|1989
|December 21,
|Ceausescu addresses a rally in Bucharest but is shouted down by protesters.
|Romania
|-
|1989
|December 22,
|Thousands of people storm government buildings in Bucharest; Ceausescu and his wife escape by helicopter.
|Romania
|-
|1989
|December 23,
|December 23, The National Salvation Front emerges, headed by Ion Iliescu, a former member of the Communist Central Committee.
|Romania
|-
|1989
|December 25,
|Ceausescu and his wife are executed.
|Romania
|-
|1989
|December 29,
|Vaclav Havel is elected president.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1990
|January 1,
|Introduction of fundamental economic reforms, securing a market system.
|Poland
|-
|1990
|January 13,
|Violent ethnic clashes break out in Azerbaijan.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|February 4,
|One hundred thousand people demonstrate against the Communist party in Moscow.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|February 7,
|Article Six of the Soviet Constitution is eliminated.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|February 24,
|The Communists are defeated in Lithuanian elections.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|March 11,
|The Timisoara Proclamation is announced.
|Romania
|-
|1990
|March 18,
|In East Germany’s first free election, 87 percent of the vote goes to pro-reunification parties.
|East Germany
|-
|1990
|March 18,
|Latvia and Estonia favor independence from the Soviet Union; Gorbachev is elected by the Soviet Parliament to a new executive presidency.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|March 25,
|Jozsef Antall of the Hungarian Democratic Forum is elected prime minister.
|Hungary
|-
|1990
|April 13,
|Gorbachev announces economic blockade of Lithuania.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|May 4,
|The Latvian Parliament votes for independence, but with an indeterminate transition period.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|June 8-9,
|The Civic Forum wins 48 percent of the vote.
|Czechoslovakia
|-
|1990
|May 20,
|Ion Iliescu of the National Salvation Front is elected president, winning 85 percent of the vote.
|Romania
|-
|1990
|May 27,
|Local elections sweep away Communist officials throughout the country.
|Poland
|-
|1990
|July 2,
|Boris Yeltsin, leader of the Russian republic and Gorbachev’s chief rival, quits the Communist party.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|October 3,
|The two Germanys are united after 45 years.
|East Germany
|-
|1990
|November 17,
|Gorbachev announces that executive power will be wielded by himself and the presidents of the 15 republics.
|Soviet Union
|-
|1990
|December 9,
|In Poland’s first free election since 1947, Lech Walesa is elected president, winning 75 percent of the vote.
|Poland
|}