Khác biệt giữa các bản “Llanero”

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(Trang mới: “thumb|200px|right|19th century Venezuelan llanero Image:El llanero domador.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Illustration…”)
 
[[Image:XIX century Llanero - Eloy Palacios.jpg|thumb|200px|right|19thMột centuryIlanero VenezuelanVenezuela llanerothế kỷ thứ 19]]
[[Image:El llanero domador.jpg|thumb|200px|right|IllustrationMinh ofhọa amột VenezuelanIllanero llaneroVenezuela bybởi Celestino Martínez, 1892]]
[[File:Maria Nieves.jpg|thumb|220px|Maria Nieves was an Apureanmột người Llanero thatApurea inspiredtạo acảm characterhứng incho việc hình thành nên một nhân vật trong [[Rómulo Gallegos]] [[Doña Barbara]]. ThisTấm photographảnh innày vào năm 1920, showscho himthây readyông tota guideđang thechuẩn cattlebị todắt crossmột theđàn gia súc sang [[Apuresông RiverApure]].]]
A '''''llaneroLlanero''''' ({{IPA-es|ʝaˈneɾo}}, ''plainsmanngười sống ở đồng bằng'') islà từ chỉ một người chăn đàn gia súc a [[Venezuela]]n orhoặc [[Colombia]]n [[herder]]. Tên Thegọi namenày isbắt takennguồn fromtừ thevùng đồng cỏ [[Los Llanos, Venezuela|Llanos]] grasslandsphía occupying westerntây Venezuela and easternphía đông Colombia. The Llanero werecó một phần gốc Tây Ban Nha và Ấn originallyĐộ part Spanish andmột Indiannền andvăn havehóa a strongrệt culturevới includingmột adạng distinctiveâm formnhạc ofđặc musictrưng.
 
==Lịch sử==
During the wars of independence, Llaneros served in both armies and provided the bulk of the cavalry during the war. In 1819, an army of Llaneros, led by [[Simón Bolívar]] and [[José Antonio Páez]], defeated the Spanish with a surprise attack when they crossed over the [[Orinoco]] plains and the [[Andes]] mountains.
 
==Văn hóa Llanero==
==History==
[[Image:Joropo Dance - Eloy Palacios.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Dance ofđiệu Joropo attại Venezuelan plainsVenezuela]]
Prior to Spanish settlement in 1548, the Llanos were occupied by indigenous groups. [[Andalusian people|Andalusian]] monks established settlements close to Native American villages and accomplished conversion through a mixture of persuasion and force.
 
==Việc dùng từ này ở Bắc Mỹ==
The Spaniards started to graze cattle on the grasslands of the llanos and the Llanero were originally a mixture of Spaniards and Indians. Indeed, Llaneros still use many terms dating from the 16th and 17th centuries. From 1640 to 1790, outlaw [[slavery|slaves]] lived in ''cumbes'', or outlaw slave communities, and intermarried with the Llanero.
 
==Xem thêm==
By the end of the 18th century, the region exported 30,000 [[mule]]s a year to the [[Antilles]] and salted meat for the 1.5 million slaves there and in Cuba. There were 1.2 million cattle in the area by 1815.
*[[Cowboy|Vaquero and cowboy]] (Mexico and United StatesMỹ)
 
*[[Gaucho]] (Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil)
When the Wars of Liberation started, the Spanish enlisted the Llaneros, playing on their dislike of the ''criollos'' of the independence movement. Bolívar realized that the plains were critical to success in the wars of liberation – they offered freedom of movement, as well as the capacity to feed his army.
[[Image:Vuelvan caras.jpg|thumb|300px|[[Arturo Michelena]], ''Vuelvan Caras''. The painting depicts an incident at the [[Battle of Las Queseras del Medio]], in which [[José Antonio Páez]] ordered his ''llaneros'' to turn around and attack the Spanish cavalry that was pursuing them.]]
He therefore sought to enlist the Llaneros to his cause and gradually succeeded by enduring the same hardships as they did – the Llaneros called him ''culo de hierro'' – or "iron [[buttocks]]" – for his endurance on horseback.
 
The Llaneros led by Páez proved crucial in Bolivar's campaign. After leading his forces including the Llanero troops over the eastern [[Andes]], Bolívar won a critical victory at the [[Battle of Boyacá]] on August 7, 1819. Three days later, he captured [[Bogotá]] in what was the turning point of wars of liberation.
 
The Llaneros would also prove to be vital in future battles in the campaign. Páez's ''[[Bravos de Apure]]'' or lancers were again critical in the [[Battle of Carabobo]] on June 24, 1821, and allowed Bolivar to capture [[Caracas]]. Páez would become the first President of Venezuela.
 
During the 1850s, a hide boom stimulated the local economy. A boom in [[great egret]] feathers in the early 1930s in Europe led to them being called ''white gold'' until the trade was banned.
 
==Llanero culture==
[[Image:Joropo Dance - Eloy Palacios.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Dance of Joropo at Venezuelan plains]]
Cattle form an important part of Llanero culture. There are 12 million cattle on the llano. During the year, the Llaneros have to drive cattle great distances. During the winter [[wet season]], the Llaneros have to drive the cattle to higher ground as the poor drainage of the plains means that the annual floods are extensive. Conversely, they have to drive the cattle towards wet areas during the dry summer.
 
The Llaneros show their skills in [[coleo]] competitions, similar to rodeos, where they compete to drag cattle to the ground.
 
Llanero music is distinctive for its use of the [[harp]], the [[maraca]]s and a small guitar called a [[Cuatro (instrument)|cuatro]]. The [[joropo]], a Llanero dance, has become the national dance of Venezuela, and of the Llanos of Colombia. While Llanero music is relatively unknown outside of Venezuela and Colombia, the musical groups [http://www.losllaneros.com Los Llaneros] and Cimarron have toured throughout the world.
 
Llanero cuisine is based on meat, fish, chicken, "chiguire" meat (also known as [[capybara]]), rice, [[arepas]], and other starches, although wheat is not used. Llanero Ken, a doll dressed in the distinctive Llanero costume [[Liqui liqui]], including a customary starched hat, has become a popular doll in Venezuela.
 
==North American usage==
The Spanish also used the term to describe the nomadic tribes of the [[Llano Estacado]] of [[Texas]] and [[New Mexico]] and was applied to the [[Apache]] in particular.
 
In [[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[The Lone Ranger]] is known as '''''El Llanero Solitario'''''.
 
==See also==
*[[Cowboy|Vaquero and cowboy]] (Mexico and United States)
*[[Gaucho]] (Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil)
*''[[Morochuco]]'' (Peruvian Andean)
*''[[Piajeno]]'' (northngười coastcưỡi mulelừa riderven ofbiển phía bắc Peru: Piura and Lambayeque)
*[[Charro]] (Mexican cowboy Mexico, nomad and ''bandolero'')
*''[[Guajiro]]'' (Cuba)
*''[[Huaso]]'' (Chile)
*''[[Lancero]]''
 
==FurtherThư readingmục==
* Richard Slatta, ''Cowboys of the Americas'', Yale University Press, New Haven, 1990
* Donald Mabry, ''Colonial Latin America'', Llumina Press, 2002
 
==Further reference==
* [http://gosouthamerica.about.com/od/venartandculture/a/llaneros.htm/ Một bài trên About.com article on thevề LlanerosLlanero]
* [http://llanera.com/musica/ LlaneraÂm musicnhạc Llanera]
* [http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=309/ Một bài bởi Donald Mabry articlevề các mặt quân sự của oncủa Militaryviệc AspectsVenezuela ofgiành Venezuelanđộc independencelập]
* [http://www.lastfrontiers.com/venezuela/detail_llanos.htm/ LastMột Frontiersbài articlecủa onLast Frontiers thevề LlanosLlano]
* [http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/bml04/ HandbookSổ oftay của Texas Online]
 
{{Mounted stock herders}}
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