Khác biệt giữa các bản “Estela Barnes de Carlotto”

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'''Enriqueta Estela Barnes de Carlotto''' (sinh ngày 22 tháng 10 năm 1930) là một nhà hoạt động [[nhân quyền]] người [[Argentina|Argentine]] [[human rights]] và là lãnh đạo của [[Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo]]. One of her daughters, [[Laura Estela Carlotto]], was [[Forced disappearance#Argentina|kidnapped and missing]] while pregnant in Buenos Aires, in late 1977. Through stories, she could ascertain that her daughter had given birth to a boy, and that her grandson was appropriated and his identity changed. She searched for him for nearly 36 years, <Ref name = nacdos> {{cite web |url= |title= Estela de Carlotto recovered her grandson Guido after 35 years of searching | publisher = ''[[La Nación|La Nación (newspaper)]]'' | date = 5 August 2014}}</ref> until, on August 5, 2014, after a [[DNA]] check voluntarily made by the person concerned, her grandson was identified, and became the 114th in the list of recovered grandchildren.<ref name=minuto>{{cite web|url= | title = Ignacio Hurban, 114th recovered grandson, the grandson of Estela de Carlotto | date = August 6, 2014 | publisher = ''''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Estela: "He search at me and I did not want to die without embrace him"|url=|date=5 August 2014 | publisher =''Infojus Noticias'' [[Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (Argentina)|Ministry of Justice and Human Rights]]}}</ref><ref> {{cite web | title = Estela de Carlotto found her grandson, Guido, after 36 years of searching|url=|date=5 August 2014 | publisher = ''[[La Nación|La Nación (newspaper)]]''}}</ref>
'''Enriqueta Estela Barnes de Carlotto''' (sinh ngày 22 tháng 10 năm 1930) là một nhà hoạt động [[nhân quyền]] người [[Argentina|Argentine]] [[human rights]] và là lãnh đạo của [[Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo]].
Carlotto has received several awards for her work with Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo), including the [[United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights]] and [[Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize]], awarded by the [[Unesco]].
==Cuộc đời==
===Lúc trẻ và bi kịch gia đình===
Enriqueta Estela Barnes sinh tại [[Buenos Aires]] vào năm 1930, trong một gia đình [[English Argentine|gốc Anh]].<ref name=LN>{{chú thích báo |title=A solas con Carlotto |url= |last=Shapira |first=Valeria |date=ngày 26 tháng 11 năm 2006 |publisher=''LNR'' (Sunday supplement of ''[[La Nación]]'') |language= Spanish |quote=Un enorme crucifijo cuida el sueño de Estela sobre la cama matrimonial. Su marido, Guido, falleció hace 5 años. Era diabético y tenía Parkinson. (...) El apellido Barnes es inglés. Nunca me explicaron bien si siempre fue Barnes, o si con las invasiones inglesas vinieron los Warnes y transformaron la W en B. Porque a los ingleses, ¿quién los quería? Mi mamá tenía directamente sangre inglesa de padre y de madre. Ella era de apellido materno D'Alkaine y el papá, Wauer. Le decíamos May. }}</ref> Gia đình cô sau đó chuyển sang [[La Plata]] vào năm 1940, và vào năm 1950, cô trở thành giáo viên [[tiểu học]]. Cô dạy ở [[Brandsen]], và sau đó ở La Plata, nơi mà sau này cô trở thành [[hiệu trưởng]]. Cô kết hôn với Guido Carlotto, chủ của một cửa hàng bán sơn, và họ có với nhau 4 người con.<ref name=monitor>[ ''El Monitor'' (Ministerio de Educación): La larga lucha contra el silencio] {{es icon}}</ref>
She was an elementary school teacher and a housewife without no public action.<ref>{{cite web| title = Alone with Carlotto | url = | author = Valeria Shapira | date = 26 November 2006 | publisher = ''LNR'' (Sunday supplement of ''[[La Nación|La Nación newspaper]]'')}}</ref>
In the 1970s, when ruled the country the civil-military dictatorship self-appointed [[National Reorganization Process]] (1976-1983), three of her children were involved in politics: Laura Estela, a student of History at the [[National University of La Plata]], militated in the [[Peronism]], Claudia belonged to the [[Peronist Universitary Youth]] and Guido Miguel integrated the student center of his high school.<ref>{{cite web | author = Ana María Mariani | title = The identity is a right | url = | date = January 26, 2003 | publisher = ''[[La Voz del Interior]]''}}</ref> on August 5, 1977, the [[Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic|armed forces]] kidnapped and tortured her husband, who was freed after payment of 40 million pesos (equivalent to 30&nbsp;000 dollars at that time).<ref name=Entrevista>{{Cite web | title = Interview with Estela Carlotto | author = Ayes Libros | publisher = ''Ayes Libros''|url=|accessdate= January 10, 2008}}</ref>
[[File:Kirchner con Abuelas y nietos recuperados.jpg|thumb|300px|Carlotto and other recovered [[Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo|grandmothers]] and grandchildren gathered in 2011 with President [[Cristina Fernández de Kirchner|Cristina Kirchner]] in the house of [[Miguel Ángel Estrella]] in Paris]]
In late November 1977, Laura, three months pregnant, was kidnapped and taken to [[clandestine detention center (Argentina)|clandestine detention center]] [[La Cacha]] in [[La Plata]],<ref name="lacacha"> {{cite web | author = | url = | title = La Cacha | publisher = | date = | accessdate = 28 October 2014}}</ref> until the end of August 1978. Shortly before the childbirth, was taken to an unspecified location -there disputes on which place-, which gave birth on June 26 1978. Some testimonies collected before realized that that place could have been the [[Hospital Militar Central Cirujano Mayor Dr. Cosme Argerich|Military Hospital in Buenos Aires]].<ref> {{cite web | author = Victoria Ginzberg | title = Missing pregnant in the Regiment in Palermo | url = | date = September 21, 2000 | publisher = ''[[Página/12]]''}}</ref><ref>Gilbert; Vitagliano, p. 226</ref> But from the restoration of the true identity of her child, there are strong suspicions that the baby could have been born in the vicinity of La Cacha or in a hospital in the province of Buenos Aires.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=It strengthens the hypothesis that the baby of Laura Carlotto was born in La Cacha | publisher = Infojus Noticias | date = August 14, 2014}}</ref>
Carlotto made arrangements for the freedom of her daughter, and came to meet with the general [[Reynaldo Bignone]], who told her that Laura would not stay alive.<ref>Lebon; Maier, p. 135</ref>
In April 1978, a companion of captivity of her daughter, who had been freed, informed her that Laura was still alive and pregnant.<ref name=Entrevista/>
{{Quote | Laura sent us to say that fed her a little better and that the baby would be born in June of that year, and if was a boy they would call Guido, like his dad. And that i search for the orphanage |Estela de Carlotto<ref name=Entrevista/>}}
Carlotto and her family always called Guido to the baby, because that was the name that wanted to put the mother.<ref name="nombre"> {{cite web|url=|title="My grandson is going to get Ignacio Guido "said Estela de Carlotto | publisher = ''[[La Gaceta de Tucumán]]'' | date = August 15, 2014 | accessdate = 27 September 2014}} </ref>
In April 1978, Carlotto began to participate in the activities of [[Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo]].<ref name=Entrevista/>
On August 25 of that year, she was summoned by the military and was handed her the dead body of her daughter, who was buried in La Plata two days later. It was one of the few cases where a missing body was returned to his family. Carlotto retired on August 30<ref name=Chasque> {{Cite web | title = Interview with Estela Carlotto | author = Gabriela Castori | publisher = ''El Mensajero, n.º&nbsp;3, 1999'' | url =|access-date= 10 de enero de 2008}}</ref>
===Các hoạt động===
[[Tập tin:Estela de Carlotto y Néstor Kirchner en Casa Rosada-30MAY06-presidencia-govar.jpg|thumb|250px|Bà Carlotto gặp tổng thống [[Néstor Kirchner]] tại [[Casa Rosada]] vào năm 2006.]]
[[Tập tin:Kirchner_con_Abuelas_y_nietos_recuperados.jpg|thumb|250px|Estela Carlotto với ba cộng sự của Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo (''bên phải''), và tổng thống [[Cristina Kirchner]] (''giữa)'', cùng với một vài trong số hơn 110 trẻ em bị bắt cóc được hiệp hội của bà giúp đỡ]]
[[File:ESTELA DE CARLOTTO Y SU NIETO VISITAN ECUADOR (15512583446).jpg|thumb|250px|Estela with her grandson, Ignacio (Guido Montoya Carlotto) Hurban.]]
Retired from her post as principal since August 30, 1978, Mrs. Carlotto became a member of the ''Abuelas Argentinas con Nietitos Desaparecidos'' (Argentine Grandmothers with Missing Grandchildren) by April 1979. She then began to seek and demand the release of her grandson and other children kidnapped or disappeared by military forces during the military dictatorship. The group, founded by Alicia de la Cuadra and 11 other grandmothers in a similar situation in 1977, was renamed the [[Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo|Association of Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo]] in 1980. Mrs. Carlotto became its Vice President, and in 1989 its President.<ref name=monitor>[ ''El Monitor'' (Ministerio de Educación): La larga lucha contra el silencio] {{es icon}}</ref>
Her search for information led her to [[São Paulo]], [[Brazil]], in 1980, where women whose children and/or grandchildren had met similar fates had organized ''CLAMOR'', a group dedicated to raising public awareness of ongoing abuses. While in São Paulo, she was told by a La Cacha prison survivor of a woman known as "Rita" whose father owned a paint store, had had a baby boy, and was released with "Carlos" on August 24, 1978. The anecdote led Mrs. Carlotto to believe that her daughter had been killed upon her release.<ref name=libros>[ Margulis, Alejandro: Estela de Carlotto, presidenta de Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo] {{es icon}}</ref>
An estimated 500 children were either kidnapped or seized at birth from women in detention during the Dirty War. The vast majority were given or sold to adoptive parents, including numerous perpetrators and accomplices in the murder of their biological parents.<ref name=monitor/><ref name=eudeba>[ Arditti, Rita, and Lykes, M. Brinton. ''Restitución de niños: La labor de las Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo'' Eudeba, 1989.]</ref> The Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo located the first missing grandchild in 1984. They secured the establishment of the National Genetic Data Bank for Relatives of Disappeared Children in 1987,<ref name=eudeba/> and the National Commission for the Right of Identity, an office tasked with facilitating answers to those who doubt the nature of their adoptions, in 1992.<ref>[ Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo: History]</ref> Mrs. Carlotto announced the discovery of the 100th grandchild on December 21, 2009.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Con el nombre del padre confirmado|work=Página/12|date=22 Dec 2009}}</ref>
Guido Carlotto, her husband, died in La Plata on October 21, 2001.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title= Avisos Fúnebres|work=El Día|date=24 Oct 2001}}</ref> Estela Barnes de Carlotto earned the [[United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights]] in 2003. She was on hand with President [[Cristina Fernández de Kirchner]] to inaugurate the ''Jardin des Mères et Grand-mères de la Place de Mai'' in [[Paris]], in 2008.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=París cuenta con un Jardín Madres y Abuelas Plaza de Mayo|work=Radio Rebelde|date=14 Apr 2008}}</ref> Filmmaker [[Nicolás Gil Lavedra]] began production on a [[biopic|biographical film]], ''Estela'', in 2011, starring [[Susú Pecoraro]] as the renowned activist.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Abrazar a Susú es como abrazar a una hija querida|work=Página/12|date=6 Feb 2011}}</ref>
Mrs. Carlotto announced on August 5, 2014, that her long-lost grandson had been discovered after he voluntarily came forward for a [[DNA test]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Grandmothers' president recovers grandson taken away under dictatorship|work=Buenos Aires Herald|date=5 Aug 2014}}</ref> Her grandson, named Ignacio Hurban, leads a [[jazz]] orchestra and directs the Rossi Brothers School of Music in [[Olavarría]]; he thus became the 114th grandchild to have his true identity discovered by the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Quién es Ignacio Hurban, el nieto recuperado de Estela|work=InfoNews|date=5 Aug 2014|language=Spanish}}</ref> Shortly after his public appearance, Hurban changed his name to Ignacio Guido Montoya Carlotto.
==Chú thích==
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