Khác biệt giữa các bản “Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo”

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'''Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo''' ({{lang-es|Asociación Civil Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo}}) là một tổ chức [[nhân quyền]] với mục tiêu tìm kiếm những đứa trẻ bị bắt cóc hoặc nhận nuôi một cách bất hợp pháp trong cuộc [[chiến tranh bẩn thỉu]] tại Argentina. Chủ tịch của tổ chức này là [[Estela Barnes de Carlotto]].
 
Thành lập năm 1977 với mục đích tìm kiếm những đứa trẻ bị thất lạc trong giai đoạn suy thoái (một vài trong số những đứa trẻ này được sinh ra ở trong tù mà mẹ của chúng sau này bị biến mất một cách khó hiểu), và để trao trả những đứa trẻ này cho những gia đình thực sự của chúng, Grandmothers, với sự giúp đỡ của nhà [[di truyền học]] người Mỹ [[Mary-Claire King]], cho tới năm 1998 đã giúp tìm thấy hơn 10 phần trăm trong số ước tính khoảng 500 đúa trẻ bị bắt cóc hoặc nhận nuôi một cách bất hợp pháp trong giai đoạn quân sự tiếm quyền này (danh tính của những đứa trẻ này được bảo vệ).<ref name=Mundostolen>Juan Ignacio Irigaray, [http://www.elmundo.es/1998/06/11/internacional/11N0042.html "Los santos inocentes"], ''[[El Mundo (Spain)|El Mundo]]'', ngày 11 tháng 6 năm 1998 {{es icon}}</ref>
 
By 1998 the identities of 256 missing children had been documented. Of those, 56 children have been located, and seven others had died. The Grandmothers' work led to the creation of the [[Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team]] and the establishment of a National Genetic Data Bank. Aided by recent breakthroughs in genetic testing, the Grandmothers succeeded in returning 31 children to their biological families. In 13 other cases, adoptive and biological families agreed on jointly raising the children after they had been identified. The remaining cases are bogged down in court [[Child custody|custody]] battles between families.<ref name=Gurvich>Marta Gurvich, [http://www.consortiumnews.com/1990s/consor17.html "Argentina's Dapper"], in ''[[Robert Parry (journalist)|Consortium News]]'', August 19, 1998 {{en icon}}</ref> As of 2008, their efforts have resulted in finding 97 grandchildren.<ref name="Gandsman 162–184">{{cite journal|last=Gandsman|first=Ari|title="A Prick of a Needle Can Do No Harm": Compulsory Extraction of Blood in the Search for the Children of Argentina's Disappeared|journal=The Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology|date=16 April 2009|volume=14|series=1|pages=162–184|doi=10.1111/j.1935-4940.2009.01043.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.libezp.lib.lsu.edu/doi/10.1111/j.1935-4940.2009.01043.x/full|accessdate=9 December 2013}}</ref>
 
The kidnapped babies were part of a systematic government plan during the "Dirty War", to pass the children for adoption by military families and allies of the regime, to avoid raising another generation of subversives.<ref name=Mundostolen/> According to the [[Inter-American Commission on Human Rights]] (IACHR), the junta feared that "the anguish generated in the rest of the surviving family because of the absence of the disappeared would develop, after a few years, into a new generation of subversive or potentially subversive elements, thereby not permitting an effective end to the Dirty War".<ref name=Gurvich/><ref>[http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/03/20123281047161699], ''Al Jazeera,'' March 2012</ref><ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/09/world/americas/argentinas-daughter-of-dirty-war-raised-by-man-who-killed-her-parents.html?pagewanted=all | work=The New York Times | first=Alexei | last=Barrionuevo | title=Daughter of Argentina's ‘Dirty War,' Raised by the Man Who Killed Her Parents | date=8 October 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://plansistematico.blogspot.com/2012/01/los-padrinos.html "Los Padrinos"], ''Plan Sistematico blog'', January 2012</ref>
 
As an offshoot of the [[Silvia Quintela]] case, former dictator [[Jorge Videla]] was detained under house-arrest in 2010 on multiple charges of kidnapping children. On July 2012 he was convicted and sentenced to fifty years in prison for the systematic stealing of babies.<ref>[http://noticias.terra.com.pe/internacional/latinoamerica/argentina-videla-condenado-a-50-anos-por-robo-de-bebes,56483ce763958310VgnVCM10000098cceb0aRCRD.html "Videla condenado a 50 anos por robo de bebes"] (Videla sentenced to 50 years for stealing babies), ''Noticias'' (Peru) (in Spanish)</ref>
 
On 14 September 2011 the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo received the [[Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize]] in [[Paris]] for their work in defense of Human Rights.<ref name="UN News Centre">{{cite web|title=Argentina’s Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo awarded UNESCO peace prize|url=http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp/story.asp?NewsID=37683&Cr=unesco&Cr1=#.UqX3Um2SDYg|publisher=UN News Centre|accessdate=9 December 2013}}</ref>
 
== Thành lập ==
The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo was founded in 1977 to protect children's rights as a response to state sponsored terrorism.<ref name="UN News Centre"/> Initially they were known as Argentine Grandmothers with Disappeared Grandchildren (''Abuelas Argentinas con Nietitos Desaparecidos''), but later adopted the name The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo (''Las Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo'').<ref>{{cite book|last=Bousquet|first=Jean Pierre|title=Las Locas de la Plaza de Mayo|year=1983|publisher=El Cid|location=Buenos Aires|asin=B000NX97VM|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=lIk0AQAAIAAJ&q=Las+locas+de+Plaza+de+Mayo&dq=Las+locas+de+Plaza+de+Mayo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=2vqlUqDDAcSwyQHy14DwDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA}}</ref> In 1983 the constitutional government was reestablished and the grandmothers searched for missing children using anonymous tips and their own investigations, but were unable to prove the children's identities.<ref name="Gandsman 162–184"/> Geneticists from the United States worked with the Grandmothers. They were able to store blood samples from family members in the National Genetic Data Bank until the grandchildren could be located and could confirm the relatedness with an accuracy rate of 99.99%.<ref name="Gandsman 162–184"/> The Grandmothers fought through the court systems to annul the unlawful adoptions. By the mid 1990s legal battles of custody were no longer appropriate because the missing grandchildren were now legal adults.<ref name="Gandsman 162–184"/> The grandmothers adapted their strategy and started public awareness campaigns to direct the missing grandchildren to contact the organization.<ref name="Gandsman 162–184"/> As of 2008, their efforts have resulted in finding 97 grandchildren.<ref name="Gandsman 162–184"/>
 
== Hợp tác với Identity Archive ==
In 2000, the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo partnered with the Identity Archive to provide collections of photos, films, audiotapes, diaries, significant objects, and personal stories from families whose children and grandchildren had disappeared.<ref name="Arditti 2007">{{cite news|last=Arditti|first=Rita|title=e Grandmothers of the Plaza De Mayo|url=http://libezp.lib.lsu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lfh&AN=27248561&site=eds-live&scope=site|accessdate=10 December 2013|newspaper=Women's Review Of Books|year=2007}}</ref> This was done because some of the grandparents were aging and dying without finding their grandchildren and the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo wanted to provide these accounts if children were found in the future.<ref name="Arditti 2007"/>
 
== Các chiến dịch vận động sự quan tâm của quần chúng ==
In the mid to late 1990s, the missing grandchildren that the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo sought became legal adults and the Grandmothers turned to public awareness campaigns to achieve their goals. The difference between Argentina's case and other child trafficking cases is that the disappeared children likely did not know that they were adopted.<ref name="Gandsman 2009 441–465">{{cite journal|last=Gandsman|first=Ari|title="Do You Know Who You Are?" Radical Existential Doubt and Scientific Certainty in the Search for the Kidnapped Children of the Disappeared in Argentina|journal=Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology|date=November 2009|volume=37|issue=4|pages=441–465|doi=10.1111/j.1548-1352.2009.01068.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1548-1352.2009.01068.x/full|accessdate=9 December 2013}}</ref> The organization turned to a commercial campaign and joined with actors to appeal to a younger audience. Their goal was to use popular culture manufacture doubt within the minds of a group of people who would have never questioned their family.<ref name="Gandsman 2009 441–465"/>
 
== Thành viên ==
*[[Alicia Zubasnabar de De la Cuadra]] – chủ tịch đầu tiên của Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo<ref name=emol>{{chú thích báo |first=|last=|title=Murió la primera presidenta de Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo |url=http://www.emol.com/noticias/internacional/2008/06/02/306812/murio-la-primera-presidenta-de-abuelas-de-plaza-de-mayo.html |work=[[El Mercurio]] |publisher= |date = ngày 8 tháng 6 năm 2008 |accessdate = ngày 24 tháng 5 năm 2012}}</ref>
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