Khác biệt giữa các bản “Julieta Lanteri”

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== Cuộc đời ==
Julie Madeleine Lanteri sinh ở một vùng nông thôn thuộc [[Briga Marittima]], trong [[Cuneo (tỉnh)|tỉnh Cuneo]], [[Ý]] (ngày nay là [[La Brigue]], [[France|Pháp]]).<ref name=alelia>{{chú thích web|url=|title=Lanteri e Pastorelli in Argentina}}</ref> Bố mẹ cô, Mattea Guido và Pierre-Antoine Lanteri, [[Nhập cư tại Argentina|di cư đến Argentina]] cùng với hai cô con gái của mình vào năm 1879. Sau này cô được nuôi dưỡng và lớn lên tại [[Buenos Aires]] và [[La Plata]].<ref name=alelia/><ref name=lanteri>{{chú thích web|url=|title=Julieta Lanteri|publisher=''El Argentino''}}</ref>
She became, in 1891, the first woman to enroll at the [[Rafael Hernández National College|Colegio Nacional de La Plata]], a public [[college preparatory school]]. Earning a degree in [[Pharmacology]] at the [[University of Buenos Aires]] in 1898,<ref name=alelia/> Lanteri enrolled in the university's School of Medicine with permission from the Dean, Dr. Leopoldo Montes de Oca. She would encounter opposition to her career as both a student and a professional by conservatives; objections included the broader concept of allowing women to pursue a career, as well as more petty ones such as that a woman should not examine a [[cadaver]]. These experiences led Lanteri and Dr. [[Cecilia Grierson]] (the first woman to earn a Medical Degree in Argentina) to co-found ''Asociación de Universitarias Argentinas'', the first university [[student association]] for women in the country, in 1904. Following an internship at the women's ward at [[Hospital Ramos Mejía|San Roque Hospital]],<ref name=today>{{cite book|title=Argentines of To-day|publisher=New York: The Hispanic Society of America|year=1920}}</ref> Lanteri became, in 1907, only the fifth woman in Argentina to earn a [[Medical Degree]], and the first [[Italian Argentine]] woman to do so.<ref name=lanteri/>
Lanteri worked for a decade in the Public Assistance Bureau of Buenos Aires and in the Emergency Hospital and Dispensary.<ref name=unc>{{cite web|url=|title=Julieta Lanteri (1873-1932)|publisher=University of North Carolina}}</ref> She campaigned actively for greater access to medical care for the poor early on, and founded a periodical, ''Semana Médica'', for the purpose.<ref name=lanteri/> She established the Argentine Association of [[Freethought|Free Thought]] in 1905, and remained active in [[women's rights]] causes, having joined Grierson, [[Alicia Moreau de Justo]], and others in the establishment of the Center for Feminism at the 1906 International Congress of Free Thought, held in Buenos Aires.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Alicia Moreau de Justo|publisher=''La Nación''}}</ref>
She founded the National League of Women Freethinkers and its journal, ''La Nueva Mujer''. She helped organize the first [[International Congress of Women]] in 1910, and later helped organize the first National [[Child Welfare]] Congress.<ref name=unc/> Her application for a faculty position at her alma mater's Medical School was denied on grounds that she was a still a [[resident alien]], prompting her to apply for Argentine citizenship. Single immigrant women, however, were not generally granted citizenship in Argentina. Lanteri married Dr. Alberto Renshaw in 1910, and following an eight-month-long lawsuit, she was granted citizenship in 1911. The marriage was in itself controversial, as he was 14 years younger than the bride. The same pretext was used to deny her enrollment in the [[Psychiatry]] course at her own alma mater's School of Medicine.<ref name=fogata>{{cite web|url=|title=Julieta Lanteri, una precursora de los derechos de las mujeres|publisher=La Fogata}}</ref>
Armed with detailed knowledge of Law 5.098, which specified numerous requisites for the right to vote while remaining moot on a woman's right to do so, Lanteri persuaded the precinct chair to accept her vote in the July 16, 1911, elections for the [[Buenos Aires City Legislature|Deliberative Council]], thus becoming the first woman to vote in [[South America]];<ref name=fogata/> women were not granted the right to vote in Argentina nationwide until 1947.<ref name=ba>{{cite web|url=|title=Calendario Histórico: Se aprueba el voto femenino (21 de Agosto de 1946)|publisher=Buenos Aires Ciudad}}</ref> Electoral Law was amended that year to require [[military service]] (something required of all male Argentine citizens) in order to vote, again eliminating women. Lanteri instead joined her lawyer, Angelica Barreda, in forming a political party, the National Feminist Union, in 1918, and she ran for a seat in the [[Argentine Chamber of Deputies]] in every election thereafter until the [[1930 Argentine coup d'état|1930 military coup]].<ref name=lanteri/>
Her political party's platform called for [[universal suffrage]], equality of the sexes under the [[Argentine Civil Code]], and a wide array of [[progressivism|progressive]] social legislation, including: legislation regulating working hours; [[equal pay]]; [[pension system|pensions]]; [[maternity leave]] benefits; [[labor law]] reforms regarding women and [[child labor]]ers; professional training for women; the legalization of [[divorce]]; specialist care for [[juvenile delinquent]]s; [[prison reform]]; the abolition of [[capital punishment]]; investments in [[public health]] and [[kindergarten]]s; greater [[work safety]] regulation in factories; [[Temperance movement|bans on the manufacture and sale of alcohol]], [[preventive medicine]] against infectious diseases, and bans on regulated [[brothel]]s.<ref name=unc/> She was unsuccessful, however, garnering 1,000 to 1,730 votes in each election;<ref name=ba/> among her supporters was the nationalist writer [[Manuel Gálvez]] who, opposed to both the [[Partido Autonomista Nacional|Conservatives]] and the ruling [[Radical Civic Union|UCR]], opted to vote for the "intrepid Dr. Lanteri." <ref name=fogata/>
Dr. Lanteri was inducted into the [[Argentine Medical Association]].<ref name=today/> She continued to practice medicine, and provided [[psychiatric and mental health nursing]] to needy women and children.<ref name=alelia/> She founded the first primary school in the town of [[Sáenz Peña, Buenos Aires]], and lectured extensively in Europe.<ref name=today/> She ventured into other activities, introducing a [[hair restoration]] tonic in 1928.<ref name=lanteri/> Her work for [[women's suffrage]] took a novel turn when, in 1929, she applied for military service on the rationale that, since military service was required for all citizens, women should be permitted military service and, accordingly, the vote. The case reached the [[Argentine Supreme Court]], where it was stricken down, however.<ref name=lanteri/>
Lanteri walked along [[Avenida Roque Sáenz Peña|Diagonal Norte Avenue]], in [[Buenos Aires CBD|downtown Buenos Aires]], on February 23, 1932, when a motorist struck her. The driver fled, and following two days in the hospital, the noted physician and activist died at age 58;<ref name=lanteri/> over 1,000 people attended her funeral.<ref name=unc/>
The incident, ruled an accident by the police, was called into question at the time by ''[[El Mundo (Argentina)|El Mundo]]'' writer Adelia Di Carlo. The news daily published details of the incident, including the fact that the police report had had the driver's name and vehicle tags blotted out; that the man, David Klapenbach, was a member of the right-wing [[paramilitary]] group, the [[Argentine Patriotic League]]; and that Klapenbach himself had committed numerous murders. Di Carlo's home was ransacked by the [[Argentine Federal Police]] following the publication of these details.<ref name=lanteri/>
Investigative journalists Araceli Bellota and Ana María De Mena published biographies of Lanteri (''Julieta Lanteri: La pasión de una mujer'' and ''Palomita Blanca'', respectively), in 2001.<ref name=lanteri/><ref name=unc/> A street in the newest district of Buenos Aires, [[Puerto Madero]], was named in her honor.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Calles de Puerto Madero|publisher=Luis Cortese}}</ref>
==Chú thích==
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