== Các đặc điểm lịch sử, xã hội và văn hóa ==
=== Sử dụng và phân bố ===
is spoken in the [[La Paz Department (Bolivia)|La Paz]], [[Beni Department|Beni]] , and [[Pando Department|Pando]] departments of Bolivia ( in the provinces of Iturralde, Ballivián, Vaca Diez , and Madre de Dios) on the [[ Beni River|Beni]] and [[ Madre de Dios River|Madre de Dios]] rivers; and in the [[Madre de Dios Region|Madre de Dios]] and [[Puno Region|Puno]] regions of Peru. According to Alexiades & Peluso (2009) , there are approximately 1,500 Ese Ejja, distributed among different communities in Peru and Bolivia. The Bolivian Ese Ejja are divided into two clans: the Quijati , around the Riberalta region; and the Hepahuatahe in the Rurenabaque region. Crevels & Muysken (2009:15) write that in Bolivia there were 518 Ese Ejja speakers ( of four years of age and older), and therefore is an endangered language. Some names used to refer to the language are Ese'eha, Chama , and Warayo; Chama is a pejorative regional name, and Guarayo is also the name of a Tupí-Guaraní language. In Peru the Ese Ejja language (Guacanahua, Echoja, Chuncho) is spoken along the Madre de Dios and [[Tambopata River|Tambopata]] rivers and at their sources in three locations: Sonene, Palma Real , and Infierno. Ese Ejja is also seriously threatened in Peru, with 840 speakers in an ethnic group of the same size.