Khác biệt giữa các bản “Thổ dân tại Brasil”

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[[Tập tin:Menina da etnia Terena.jpg|thumb|200px|Một bé gái thổ dân [[Terena people|Terena]]]]
'''Thổ dân tại Brazil''' ({{lang-pt|povos indígenas no Brasil}}), hay '''Nngười Brazil gốc''' ({{lang-pt|nativos brasileiros}}), gồm một nhóm nhiều [[sắc tộc]] sống tại vùng ngày nay là [[Brazil]] từ trước khi các đợt thám hiểm của [[Châu Âu]]an vào khoảng năm 1500. Unlike [[Christopher Columbus]], who thought he had reached the [[East Indies]], the [[Portugal|Portuguese]], most notably [[Vasco da Gama]], had already reached India via the Indian Ocean route when they reached [[Brazil]].
 
Nevertheless, the word ''índios'' ("Indians") was by then established to designate the people of the [[New World]] and continues to be used today in the Portuguese language to designate these people, while the people of [[India]] are called ''indianos'' in order to distinguish the two.
 
At the time of European contact, some of the [[indigenous peoples|indigenous people]] were traditionally mostly semi-[[nomadic]] tribes who subsisted on [[hunting]], [[fishing]], [[hunter-gatherer|gathering]], and migrant [[agriculture]]. Many of the estimated 2,000 nations and tribes which existed in the 16th century suffered extinction as a consequence of the European settlement, and many were assimilated into the Brazilian [[population]].
 
The indigenous population was largely killed off by European diseases, declining from a pre-Columbian high of millions to some 300,000 (1997), grouped into some 200 tribes. However, the number could be much higher if the urban indigenous populations are counted in all the Brazilian cities today. A somewhat dated linguistic survey<ref>Rodrigues 1985</ref> found 188 living [[Languages of Brazil|indigenous languages]] with 155,000 total speakers.
 
On January 18, 2007, [[Fundação Nacional do Índio|FUNAI]] reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in [[Brazil]], up from 40 in 2005. With this addition Brazil has now surpassed [[New Guinea]] as the country having the largest number of [[uncontacted peoples|uncontacted people]].
 
Brazilian indigenous people have made substantial and pervasive contributions to the world's medicine with knowledge used today by pharmaceutical corporations, material, and cultural development—such as the domestication of [[tobacco]], [[cassava]], and other crops.
 
In the last [[Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics|IBGE]] census (2010), 817,000 Brazilians classified themselves as [[Indigenous peoples|indigenous]].
 
==Nguồn gốc==
[[Tập tin:Parque Indígena do Xingu.jpg|thumb|[[Xingu (people)|Xingu]], một [[vùng lãnh thổ thổ dân]] thuộc Brazil]]
Questions about the original [[settlement of the Americas]] has produced a number of hypothetical models. The origins of these indigenous people are still a matter of dispute among [[Archaeology|archaeologists]]. The traditional view, which traces them to [[Siberia]]n migration to the Americas at the end of the last [[Wisconsin glaciation|ice age]], has been increasingly challenged by [[South America]]n archaeologists. [[Polynesian navigation#Theories|Theories]] to explain evidence of [[pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact]] with the Americas by Asian, African, or Oceanic people is generally the topic of significant debate. [[Experimental archaeology|Demonstrations]] such as [[Kon-Tiki]] and the [[Kantuta Expeditions]] demonstrated the ability to travel westward with the [[Humboldt Current]] from South America to [[Polynesia]].
 
===Giả thuyết Kỷ Băng hà Siberia===
[[Anthropology|Anthropological]] and [[Genetics|genetic]] evidence indicates that most Amerindian people descended from migrant people from [[North Asia]] ([[Siberia]]) who entered the Americas across the [[Bering Strait]] or along the western coast of North America in at least three separate waves. In Brazil, particularly, most native tribes who were living in the land by 1500 are thought to be descended from the first Siberian wave of migrants, who are believed to have crossed the [[Bering Land Bridge]] at the end of the last Ice Age, between 13,000 and 17,000 years before the present. A migrant wave would have taken some time after initial entry to reach present-day Brazil, probably entering the [[Amazon River]] basin from the Northwest. (The second and third migratory waves from Siberia, which are thought to have generated the [[Athabaskan]], [[Aleut peoples|Aleut]], [[Inuit]], and [[Yupik peoples|Yupik people]], apparently did not reach farther than the southern [[United States]] and [[Canada]], respectively).{{citation needed|date=December 2010}}
 
An analysis of [[Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas|Amerindian Y-chromosome DNA]] indicates specific clustering of much of the South American population. The [[Microsatellite (genetics)|micro-satellite]] diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region.<ref name=subclades>{{cite web
|url=http://64.40.115.138/file/lu/6/52235/NTIyMzV9K3szNTc2Nzc=.jpg?download=1
|title=Summary of knowledge on the subclades of Haplogroup Q
|publisher= Genebase Systems|year=2009
|accessdate=17 December 2010
}}</ref>
 
===Giả thuyết Australian Aborigines===
The traditional view above has recently been challenged by findings of human remains in South America, which are claimed to be too old to fit this scenario—perhaps even 20,000 years old. Some recent finds (notably the [[Luzia Woman|Luzia skeleton]] in [[Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais]], Brazil analyzed by [[University of São Paulo]], Professor [[Walter Neves]]) are claimed to be morphologically distinct from the Asian [[phenotype]] and are more similar to [[Australian Aborigine]]s. These Americans would have been later displaced or absorbed by the Siberian settlers. The distinctive [[Fuegians|natives of Tierra del Fuego]], the southernmost tip of the South American continent, may have been the last remains of those Aboriginal populations.
 
These early settlers would have either crossed the ocean on [[raft]]s or boats, or traveled North along the Asian coast and entered the Americas through the Bering Strait area, well before the Siberian waves. This theory is still resisted by many scientists chiefly because of the apparent difficulty of the trip. Some proposed theories involve a southward migration from or through [[Australia (continent)|Australia]] and [[Tasmania]], hopping [[Subantarctic islands]] and then proceeding along the coast of [[Antarctica]] and/or southern [[ice sheet]]s to the tip of [[South America]] at the time of the [[last glacial maximum]].
 
There is no genetic nor linguistic evidence to support this hypothesis, even though it is plausible that aborigine people that inhabited East Asian shores could have crossed Beringia before the first Siberian waves.
 
==Các nghiên cứu di truyền học==
[[Tập tin:Indios apiaka no rio Arinos.jpg|thumb|[[người Apiacá]], vẽ bởi [[Hércules Florence]], 1827]]
[[File:Indios apiaka no rio Arinos.jpg|thumb|[[Apiacá people]], painted by [[Hércules Florence]], 1827]]
According to an autosomal genetic study from 2012,<ref name="nature.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v488/n7411/abs/nature11258.html|title=Reconstructing Native American population history|work=nature.com|accessdate=10 November 2015}}</ref> Native Americans descend of at least three main migrant waves from East Asia. Most of it is traced back to a single ancestral population, called 'First Americans'. However, those who speak [[Inuit languages]] from the [[Arctic]] inherited almost half of their ancestry from a second East Asian migrant wave. And those who speak [[Na-dene]], on the other hand, inherited a tenth of their ancestry from a third migrant wave. The initial settling of the Americas was followed by a rapid expansion southwards, by the coast, with little gene flow later, especially in [[South America]]. One exception to this are the [[Chibcha]] speakers, whose ancestry comes from both North and South America.
<ref name="nature.com"/>
 
Another study, focused on the mtDNA (that which is inherited only through the maternal line),<ref name="plosone.org">{{cite web|url=http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000829?imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000829.g002|title=PLOS ONE|work=plosone.org|accessdate=10 November 2015}}</ref> revealed that the indigenous people of the Americas have their maternal ancestry traced back to a few founding lineages from East Asia, which would have arrived via the [[Bering strait]]. According to this study, it is probable that the ancestors of the Native Americans would have remained for a time in the region of the [[Bering Strait]], after which there would have been a rapid movement of settling of the Americas, taking the founding lineages to [[South America]].
 
Linguistic studies have backed up genetic studies, with ancient patterns having been found between the languages spoken in [[Siberia]] and those spoken in the Americas.<ref name="plosone.org"/>
 
Two 2015 autosomal DNA genetic studies confirmed the Siberian origins of the Natives of the Americas. However an ancient signal of shared ancestry with the Natives of Australia and Melanesia was detected among the Natives of the [[Amazon region]]. The migration coming out of [[Siberia]] would have happened 23000 years ago.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.sciencemag.org/content/349/6250/aab3884.abstract|title=Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans| author=Raghavan |format=pdf |work= |date=21 August 2015|access-date=6 October 2015 |quote= |display-authors=etal}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v525/n7567/full/nature14895.html |title=Genetic evidence for two founding populations of the Americas|format=pdf |work= |date=21 July 2015|access-date=7 October 2015 |quote= }}</ref>
 
==Các di chỉ khảo cổ==
[[Tập tin:Índios da etnia Terena2.jpg|thumb|Người Terena]]
[[File:Índios da etnia Terena2.jpg|thumb|right|Terena people.]]
Brazilian native people, unlike those in [[Mesoamerica]] and the western [[Andes]], did not keep written records or erect stone monuments, and the humid climate and acidic soil have destroyed almost all traces of their material culture, including [[wood]] and [[bone]]s. Therefore, what is known about the region's history before 1500 has been inferred and reconstructed from small-scale archaeological evidence, such as [[Indigenous ceramics of the Americas|ceramics]] and stone [[arrowhead]]s.
 
The most conspicuous remains of these societies are very large mounds of discarded [[shellfish]] (''sambaquis'') found in some coastal sites which were continuously inhabited for over 5,000 years; and the substantial "black earth" (''[[terra preta]]'') deposits in several places along the Amazon, which are believed to be ancient garbage dumps ([[midden]]s). Recent excavations of such deposits in the middle and upper course of the Amazon have uncovered remains of some very large settlements, containing tens of thousands of homes, indicating a complex social and economic structure.<ref>[http://www.amazonia.org.br/noticias/print.cfm?id=2691 Deposits in several places along the Amazon]</ref>
 
==Thổ dân sau thời kỳ thuộc địa hóa bởi châu Âu==
=== Phân bố ===
[[Tập tin:Map of indigenous peoples of Brazil (16th C.).jpg|thumb|Phân bố của người Tupi và Tapuia ven biển Brazil, trước thời kỳ thuộc địa họa vào thế kỷ thứ 16]]
On the eve of the [[2nd Portuguese India Armada (Cabral, 1500)|Portuguese arrival]] in 1500, the coastal areas of Brazil had two major mega-groups - the ''[[Tupí people|Tupi]]'' (speakers of [[Tupi–Guarani languages]]), who dominated practically the entire length of the Brazilian coast, and the ''Tapuia'' (a catch-all term for non-Tupis, usually [[Jê language]] people), who resided primarily in the interior. The Portuguese arrived in the final days of a long pre-colonial struggle between Tupis and Tapuias, which had resulted in the defeat and expulsion of the Tapuias from most coastal areas.
 
Although the coastal Tupi were broken down into sub-tribes, frequently hostile to each other, they were culturally and linguistically homogeneous. The fact that the early Europeans encountered practically the same people and language all along the Brazilian coast greatly simplified early communication and interaction.
 
Coastal Sequence c. 1500 (north to south):<ref>Boundary details are partly derived from [http://www.arara.fr/BBTRIBOS.html Tribos Indígenas Brasileiras]</ref>
# '''[[Tupinambá people|Tupinambá]]''' (Tupi, from the [[Amazon River|Amazon]] delta to [[Maranhão]])
# '''[[Tremembé people|Tremembé]]''' (Tapuia, coastal tribe, ranged from [[São Luis Island]] (south Maranhão) to the mouth of the [[Acaraú River]] in north [[Ceará]]; French traders cultivated an alliance with them)
# '''[[Potiguara people|Potiguara]]''' (Tupi, literally "shrimp-eaters"; they had a reputation as great canoeists and aggressively expansionist, inhabited a great coastal stretch from [[Acaraú River]] to [[Itamaracá]] island, covering the modern states of southern Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba.)
# '''[[Tabajara]]''' (tiny Tupi tribe between Itamaracá island and [[Paraíba do Norte River|Paraiba River]]; neighbors and frequent victims of the Potiguara)
# '''[[Caeté people|Caeté]]''' (Tupi group in [[Pernambuco]], ranged from Paraiba River to the [[São Francisco River]]; after killing and eating a Portuguese bishop, they were subjected to Portuguese extermination raids and the remnant pushed into the Pará interior)
# '''[[Tupinambá people|Tupinambá]]''' again (Tupi par excellence, ranged from the São Francisco River to the [[Bay of All Saints]], population estimated as high as 100,000; hosted Portuguese castaway [[Caramuru]])
# '''[[Tupiniquim]]''' (Tupi, covered [[Bahia]]n [[Bahia#The Discovery Coast|discovery coast]], from around [[Camamu]] to [[São Mateus River]]; these were the first indigenous people encountered by the Portuguese, having met the landing of captain [[Pedro Álvares Cabral]] in April 1500)
# '''[[Botocudo people|Aimoré]]''' (Tapuia (Jê) tribe; concentrated on a sliver of coast in modern [[Espírito Santo]] state)
# '''[[Goitacá people|Goitacá]]''' (Tapuia tribe; once dominated the coast from [[São Mateus River]] (in Espírito Santo state) down to the [[Paraíba do Sul]] river (in [[Rio de Janeiro (state)|Rio de Janeiro]] state); hunter-gatherers and fishermen, they were a shy people that avoided all contact with foreigners; estimated at 12,000; they had a fearsome reputation and were eventually annihilated by European colonists)
# '''[[Temiminó]]''' (small Tupi tribe, centered on [[Governador Island]] in [[Guanabara Bay]]; frequently at war with the Tamoio around them)
# '''[[Tamoio]]''' (Tupi, old branch of the Tupinambá, ranged from the western edge of Guanabara bay to [[Ilha Grande]])
# '''[[Tupinambá people|Tupinambá]]''' again (Tupi, indistinct from the Tamoio. Inhabited the Paulist coast, from Ilha Grande to [[Santos, São Paulo|Santos]]; main enemies of the Tupiniquim to their west. Numbered between six and ten thousand).
# '''[[Tupiniquim]]''' again (Tupi, on the [[São Paulo (state)|São Paulo]] coast from Santos/Bertioga down to [[Cananéia]]; aggressively expansionist, they were recent arrivals imposing themselves on the Paulist coast and the [[Piratininga]] plateau at the expense of older Tupinambá and Carijó neighbors; hosted Portuguese castaways [[João Ramalho]] ('Tamarutaca') and António Rodrigues in the early 1500s; the Tupiniquim were the first formal allies of the Portuguese colonists, helped establish the Portuguese [[Captaincy of São Vicente]] in the 1530s; sometimes called "Guaianá" in old Portuguese chronicles, a Tupi term meaning "friendly" or "allied")
# '''[[Carijó]]''' (Guarani (Tupi) tribe, ranged from Cananeia all the way down to [[Lagoa dos Patos]] (in [[Rio Grande do Sul]] state); victims of the Tupiniquim and early European slavers; they hosted the mysterious ''[[degredado]]'' known as the '[[Bachelor of Cananeia]]')
# '''[[Charrúa]]''' (Tapuia (Jê) tribe in modern [[Uruguay]] coast, with an aggressive reputation against intruders; killed [[Juan Díaz de Solís]] in 1516)
 
With the exception of the [[hunter-gatherer]] [[Goitacases]], the coastal Tupi and Tapuia tribes were primarily agriculturalists. The subtropical Guarani cultivated [[maize]], tropical Tupi cultivated manioc ([[cassava]]), highland Jês cultivated [[peanut]], as the staple of their diet. Supplementary crops included [[bean]]s, [[sweet potato]]es, cará ([[Yam (vegetable)|yam]]), ''jerimum'' ([[pumpkin]]), and ''cumari'' ([[capsicum]] pepper).
 
Behind these coasts, the interior of Brazil was dominated primarily by Tapuia (Jê) people, although significant sections of the interior (notably the upper reaches of the [[Xingu River|Xingu]], [[Teles Pires]] and [[Juruena River]]s - the area now covered roughly by modern [[Mato Grosso]] state) were the original pre-migration Tupi-Guarani homelands. Besides the Tupi and Tapuia, it is common to identify two other indigenous mega-groups in the interior: the [[Kalina people|Caribs]], who inhabited much of what is now northwestern Brazil, including both shores of the [[Amazon River]] up to the delta and the [[Nuaraque]] group, whose constituent tribes inhabited several areas, including most of the upper Amazon (west of what is now [[Manaus]]) and also significant pockets in modern [[Amapá]] and [[Roraima]] states.
 
The names by which the different Tupi tribes were recorded by Portuguese and French authors of the 16th century are poorly understood. Most do not seem to be proper names, but descriptions of relationship, usually familial - e.g. ''tupi'' means "first father", ''tupinambá'' means "relatives of the ancestors", ''tupiniquim'' means "side-neighbors", ''tamoio'' means "grandfather", ''temiminó'' means "grandson", ''tabajara'' means "in-laws" and so on.<ref>M. Pereira Gomes, ''The Indians and Brazil'', p.32</ref> Some etymologists believe these names reflect the ordering of the migration waves of Tupi people from the interior to the coasts, e.g. first Tupi wave to reach the coast being the "grandfathers" (Tamoio), soon joined by the "relatives of the ancients" (Tupinamba), by which it could mean relatives of the Tamoio, or a Tamoio term to refer to relatives of the old Tupi back in the upper Amazon basin. The "grandsons" (Temiminó) might be a splinter. The "side-neighbors" (Tupiniquim) meant perhaps recent arrivals, still trying to jostle their way in. However, by 1870 the Tupi tribes population had declined to 250, 000 indígenas and by 1890 had diminished to an approximate 100,000 tribes.
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|-
! colspan=2 | Native Brazilian Population in Northeast Coast (Dutch estimatives).<ref>Leslie Bethell, MARY AMAZONAS LEITE DE BARROS
. “História da América Latina: América Latina Colonial Vol. 2". EdUSP. São Paulo, p.317, 1997.</ref>
|-
! Period!! Total
|-
| 1540 || +100,000
|-
| 1640 || 9,000
|}
 
===Cuộc chạm trán đầu tiên===
[[Tập tin:Os Filhos de Pindorama. Cannibalism in Brazil in 1557.jpg|thumb|Depiction of [[cannibalism]] in the Brazilian Tupinambá tribe, as described by [[Hans Staden]].]]
[[Tập tin:Dança dos Tapuias.jpg|thumb|[[Albert Eckhout]] (Hà Lan), [[Indigenous peoples in Brazil#Native people after the European colonization|Tapuias]] (Brazil) đang nhảy múa, 17th c.]]
When the [[Portuguese people|Portuguese]] explorers first arrived in Brazil in April 1500, they found, to their astonishment, a wide coastline rich in resources, teeming with hundreds of thousands of Indigenous people living in a "paradise" of natural riches. [[Pêro Vaz de Caminha]], the official scribe of [[Pedro Álvares Cabral]], the commander of the discovery fleet which landed in the present state of [[Bahia]], wrote a letter to the King of Portugal describing in glowing terms the beauty of the land.
 
At the time of European arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had as many as 2,000 nations and tribes. The indigenous people were traditionally mostly semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture. For hundreds of years, the indigenous people of Brazil lived a semi-nomadic life, managing the forests to meet their needs. When the Portuguese arrived in 1500, the Indians were living mainly on the coast and along the banks of major rivers. Initially, the Europeans saw native people as noble savages, and [[miscegenation]] of the population began right away. Portuguese claims of tribal warfare, [[cannibalism]], and the pursuit of Amazonian [[brazilwood]] for its treasured red dye convinced the Portuguese that they should "civilize" the Indians (originally, Colonists called Brazil [[Terra de Santa Cruz]], until later it acquired its name (see [[List of meanings of countries' names]]) from [[brazilwood]]). But the Portuguese, like the Spanish in their North American territories, had brought diseases with them against which many Indians were helpless due to lack of immunity. [[Measles]], [[smallpox]], [[tuberculosis]], and [[influenza]] killed tens of thousands. The diseases spread quickly along the indigenous trade routes, and whole tribes were likely annihilated without ever coming in direct contact with Europeans.
 
===Nô lệ và bandeiras===
[[Tập tin:Debret37.jpg|thumb|Những thổ dân Brazilian trong nghi thức [[Debret]]]]
The mutual feeling of wonderment and good relationship was to end in the succeeding years.
The Portuguese [[colonist]]s, all males, started to have children with female amerindians, creating a new generation of mixed-race people who spoke Indian languages (a [[Tupi language]] called [[Nheengatu language|Nheengatu]]). The children of these Portuguese men and Indian women formed the majority of the population. Groups of fierce pathfinders organized expeditions called "[[Bandeirantes|bandeiras]]" (flags) into the backlands to claim it for the Portuguese crown and to look for [[gold]] and [[precious stone]]s.
 
Intending to profit from [[sugar trade]], the Portuguese decided to plant [[sugar cane]] in Brazil, and use indigenous slaves as the workforce, as the Spanish colonies were successfully doing. But the indigenous people were hard to capture and soon infected by diseases brought by the Europeans against which they had no natural [[immune system|immunity]], began dying in great numbers.
 
===Các thầy tu dòng Tên: Những người bảo vệ cho thổ dân===
{{Main|Jesuit Reductions}}
[[Tập tin:Indigenous brazil.jpg|thumb|Bản đồ các [[vùng lãnh thổ thổ dân]] tại Brazil.]]
The [[Society of Jesus|Jesuit]] priests, who had come with the first [[Governor General]] to provide for religious assistance to the colonists, but mainly to convert the pagan people to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]], took the side of the Indians and extracted a Papal [[papal bull|bull]] stating that they were human and should be protected.
 
Jesuit priests such as fathers [[José de Anchieta]] and [[Manuel da Nóbrega]] studied and recorded their language and founded mixed settlements, such as [[São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga]], where colonists and Indians lived side by side, speaking the same ''[[Língua Geral]]'' (common language) and freely interbred. They began also to establish more remote villages peopled only by "civilized" Indians, called ''Missions'', or [[Indian Reductions|reductions]] (see the article on the [[Guarani people]] for more details).
 
By the middle of the 16th century, Catholic [[Jesuit]] priests, at the behest of Portugal's monarchy, had established missions throughout the country's colonies. They became protectors of the Indians and worked to both Europeanize them and convert them to [[Catholicism]]. The Jesuits provided a period of relative stability for the Indians.
 
In the mid-1770s, the Indians' fragile co-existence with the colonists was again threatened. Because of a complex diplomatic web between [[Portugal]], Spain and the [[Vatican City|Vatican]], the Jesuits were expelled from Brazil and the missions confiscated and sold.
 
By 1800, the population of Brazil had reached approximately 3.25 million, of which only 250,000 were [[Indigenous peoples|indigenous]]. And for the next four decades, the Indians were largely left alone.
 
===Chiến tranh===
[[Tập tin:Debret2.jpg|thumb|Một Chiến binh vẽ bởi [[Jean-Baptiste Debret]] vào đầu thế kỷ thứ 19]]
A number of wars between several tribes, such as the [[Tamoio Confederation]], and the Portuguese ensued, sometimes with the Indians siding with enemies of Portugal, such as the French, in the famous episode of [[France Antarctique]] in [[Rio de Janeiro]], sometimes allying themselves to Portugal in their fight against other tribes. At approximately the same period, a German soldier, [[Hans Staden]], was captured by the [[Tupinambá people|Tupinambá]] and released after a while. He described it in a famous book.
 
There are various documented accounts of [[smallpox]] being knowingly used as a biological weapon by New Brazilian villagers that wanted to get rid of nearby Indian tribes (not always aggressive ones). The most "classical", according to Anthropologist, Mércio Pereira Gomes, happened in Caxias, in south Maranhão, where local farmers, wanting more land to extend their cattle farms, gave clothing owned by ill villagers (that normally would be burned to prevent further infection) to the Timbira. The clothing infected the entire tribe, and they had neither immunity nor cure. Similar things happened in other villages throughout South America.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.socioambiental.org/noticias/nsa/nsa/detalhe?id=64|title=Notícias socioambientais :: Socioambiental|work=socioambiental.org|accessdate=10 November 2015}}</ref>
 
===The rubber trade===
The 1840s brought trade and wealth to the [[Amazon Basin|Amazon]]. The process for [[vulcanization|vulcanizing]] [[rubber]] was developed, and worldwide demand for the product skyrocketed. The best [[rubber tree]]s in the world grew in the Amazon, and thousands of rubber tappers began to work the plantations. When the Indians proved to be a difficult labor force, peasants from surrounding areas were brought into the region. In a dynamic that continues to this day, the indigenous population was at constant odds with the peasants, who the Indians felt had invaded their lands in search of treasure.<ref>Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. 2012. "Brazil". Steven L. Denver (ed.), "Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues", Vol. 3. Armonk, NY: M .E. Sarpe, pp. 579-581.</ref>
 
===The legacy of Cândido Rondon===
[[Tập tin:Cândido Rondon.jpg|thumb|Marshal [[Cândido Rondon]].]]
In the 20th century, the Brazilian Government adopted a more humanitarian attitude and offered official protection to the indigenous people, including the establishment of the first indigenous reserves. Fortune brightened for the Indians around the turn of the 20th century when [[Cândido Rondon]], a man of both [[Portuguese people|Portuguese]] and [[Bororo people|Bororo]] ancestry, and an explorer and progressive officer in the Brazilian army, began working to gain the Indians' trust and establish peace. Rondon, who had been assigned to help bring telegraph communications into the Amazon, was a curious and natural explorer. In 1910, he helped found the ''Serviço de Proteção aos Índios - SPI'' (Service for the Protection of Indians, today the FUNAI, or ''[[Fundação Nacional do Índio]]'', National Foundation for Indians). SPI was the first federal agency charged with protecting Indians and preserving their culture. In 1914, Rondon accompanied [[Theodore Roosevelt]] on Roosevelt's famous expedition to map the Amazon and discover new species. During these travels, Rondon was appalled to see how settlers and developers treated the indigenes, and he became their lifelong friend and protector.
 
Rondon, who died in 1958, is a national hero in Brazil. The Brazilian state of [[Rondônia]] is named after him.
 
===SPI failure and FUNAI===
[[Tập tin:Indígena da etnia Tapirapé.jpg|thumb|Một phụ nữ [[Tapirapé people|Tapirapé]] xăm mình]]
After Rondon's pioneering work, the SPI was turned over to bureaucrats and military officers and its work declined after 1957. The new officials did not share Rondon's deep commitment to the Indians. SPI sought to address tribal issues by transforming the tribes into mainstream Brazilian society. The lure of reservation riches enticed cattle ranchers and settlers to continue their assault on Indians lands – and the SPI eased the way. Between 1900 and 1967, an estimated 98 [[Indigenous peoples|indigenous]] tribes were wiped out.{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}
 
Mostly due to the efforts of the [[Villas-Bôas brothers]], Brazil's first Indian reserve, the [[Xingu National Park]], was established by the Federal Government in 1961.
 
During the social and political upheaval in the 1960s, reports of mistreatment of Indians increasingly reached [[Brazil]]'s [[urban center]]s and began to affect Brazilian thinking. In 1967, following the publication of the ''[[Figueiredo Report|Figueiredo]]'' report, commissioned by the Ministry of the Interior, the military government launched an investigation into SPI. It soon came to light that the SPI was corrupt and failing to protect Indians, their lands, and, culture. The 5,000-page report catalogued atrocities including slavery, sexual abuse, torture, and mass murder.<ref name="urlFUNAI - National Indian Foundation (Brazil)">{{cite web
|url=http://www.survivalinternational.org/about/funai
|title=FUNAI - National Indian Foundation (Brazil)
|format=|work=
|accessdate=23 February 2011}}</ref>
It has been charged that agency officials, in collaboration with land speculators, were systematically slaughtering the Indians by intentionally circulating disease-laced clothes.{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}} Criminal prosecutions followed, and the SPI was disbanded. The same year the government established '''Fundação Nacional do Índio''' (''National Indian Foundation''), known as FUNAI which is responsible for protecting the interests, cultures, and rights of the Brazilian indigenous populations.
Some tribes have become significantly integrated into Brazilian society. The unacculturated tribes which have been contacted by FUNAI, are supposed to be protected and accommodated within Brazilian society in varying degrees. By 1987 it was recognized that unessential contact with the tribes was causing illness and social disintegration. The uncontacted tribes are now supposed to be protected from intrusion and interference in their life style and territory.<ref name="urlFUNAI - National Indian Foundation (Brazil)" />
However, the exploitation of [[rubber]] and other Amazonic natural resources has led to a new cycle of invasion, expulsion, massacres and death, which continues to this day.{{citation needed|date=September 2013}}
 
===Chính phủ quân đội===
Also in 1964, in a seismic political shift, the Brazilian military took control of the government and abolished all existing political parties, creating a two-party system. For the next two decades, Brazil was ruled by a series of generals. The country's mantra was "Brazil, the Country of the Future," which the military government used as justification for a giant push into the Amazon to exploit its resources, thereby beginning to transform Brazil into one of the leading economies of the world. Construction began on a transcontinental highway across the Amazon basin, aimed to encourage migration to the [[Amazon rainforest|Amazon]] and to open up the region to more trade. With funding from World Bank, thousands of square miles of forest were cleared without regard for reservation status. After the highway projects came giant hydroelectric projects, then swaths of forest were cleared for cattle ranches. As a result, reservation lands suffered massive deforestation and flooding. The public works projects attracted very few migrants, but those few – and largely poor - settlers brought new diseases that further devastated the Indians population.
 
===Tình thế hiện nay===
The [[Constitution of Brazil|1988 Brazilian Constitution]] recognises indigenous people' right to pursue their traditional ways of life and to the permanent and exclusive possession of their "traditional lands", which are demarcated as [[Indigenous Territory|Indigenous Territories]].<ref name="constitution">Federal Constitution of Brazil. [http://www.v-brazil.com/government/laws/titleVIII.html Chapter VII Article 231].</ref> In practice, however, Brazil's indigenous people still face a number of external threats and challenges to their continued existence and cultural heritage.<ref name="US DoS">{{cite web|title=2008 Human Rights Report: Brazil|url=http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/wha/119150.htm|publisher=United States Department of State: Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor|accessdate=24 March 2011|date=25 February 2009}}</ref> The process of demarcation is slow—often involving protracted legal battles—and [[Fundação Nacional do Índio|FUNAI]] do not have sufficient resources to enforce the legal protection on indigenous land.<ref name="ISA Intro">{{cite web|title=Indigenous Lands > Introduction > About Lands|url=http://pib.socioambiental.org/en/c/terras-indigenas/introducao/o-que-sao-terras-indigenas|work=Povos Indígenas no Brasil|publisher=Instituo Socioambiental (ISA)|accessdate=24 March 2011}}</ref><ref name="US DoS" /><ref>{{cite web|last=Borges|first=Beto|last2=Combrisson|first2=Gilles|title=Indigenous Rights in Brazil: Stagnation to Political Impasse|url=http://saiic.nativeweb.org/brazil.html|publisher=South and Meso American Indian Rights Center|accessdate=24 March 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last=Schwartzman|first=Stephan|last2=Valéria Araújo|first2=Ana|last3=Pankararú|first3=Paulo|title=Brazil: The Legal Battle Over Indigenous Land Rights|journal=NACLA Report on the Americas|year=1996|volume=29|issue=5|url=http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95702149|accessdate=24 March 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Brazilian Indians 'win land case'|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7774895.stm|accessdate=24 March 2011|newspaper=BBC News|date=11 December 2008}}</ref> Since the 1980s there has been a boom in the exploitation of the Amazon Rainforest for mining, logging and cattle ranching, posing a severe threat to the region's indigenous population. Settlers illegally encroaching on indigenous land continue to destroy the environment necessary for indigenous people' traditional ways of life, provoke violent confrontations and spread disease.<ref name="US DoS" /> people such as the [[Akuntsu]] and [[Kanoê]] have been brought to the brink of extinction within the last three decades.<ref name="ISA Akuntsu">{{cite web|title=Introduction > Akuntsu|url=http://pib.socioambiental.org/en/povo/akuntsu|work=Povos Indígenas no Brasil|accessdate=8 March 2011|author=Instituto Socioambiental (ISA)}}</ref><ref name="ISA Kanoe">{{cite web|title=Introduction > Kanoê|url=http://pib.socioambiental.org/en/povo/kanoe|work=Povos Indígenas no Brasil|accessdate=8 March 2011|author=Instituto Socioambiental (ISA)}}</ref> 13 November 2012, the national indigenous people association from Brazil APIB submitted to the United Nation a human rights document that complaints about new proposed laws in Brazil that would further undermine their rights if approved.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://earthpeoples.org/blog/?p=2866 |title=English version of human rights complaint document submitted to the United Nations by the National Indigenous Peoples Organization from Brazil (APIB) |publisher=Earth Peoples |date=13 November 2012 |accessdate=19 November 2012}}</ref>
 
==Các nhóm sắc tộc lớn==
{{South America topic|Indigenous peoples in}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:IndigenousThổ Peoplesdân Intại Brazil}}
[[Thể loại:Indigenous peoples in Brazil| ]]
[[Thể loại:Indigenous peoples of South America|Brazil]]
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