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{{main|List of common Taiwanese surnames}}
 
[[File:Taiwanese surnames by frequency.png|thumb|300px|Distribution of Taiwanese Surnames{{colbegin}}{{legend|#3266cc|陳 ChenTrần (11.06%)}}
 
{{legend|#dc3812|林 LinLâm (8.28%)}}
 
{{legend|#fe9900|黃 HuangHoàng/Huỳnh (6.01%)}}
 
{{legend|#109619|張 ChangTrương (5.26%)}}
 
{{legend|#990099|李 Lee (5.11%)}}
 
{{legend|#0099c5|王 WangVương (4.12%)}}
 
{{legend|#dd4578|吳 WuNgô (4.04%)}}
 
{{legend|#66aa00|劉 LiuLưu (3.17%)}}
 
{{legend|#b82e2e|蔡 Tsai (2.91%)}}
 
{{legend|#316394|楊 YangDương (2.66%)}}
 
{{legend|#994499|Otherhọ khác (47.4%)}}{{colend}}]]
 
Names in Taiwan{{spaced ndash}}both among the immigrant [[Han Chinese|ethnic Chinese]] and [[Naming customs of Taiwanese aborigines|Taiwanese aborigines]]{{spaced ndash}}are similar to those in southeast China but differ somewhat from the distribution of names among all Han Chinese. According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the [[Taiwan|Taiwanese]] [[Ministry of the Interior (Taiwan)|Ministry of the Interior]]'s Department of Population in February, 2005,<ref name="TaiRank">中华百家姓-千字文-国学经典-文化经典. "[http://wuyilaoren.blog.163.com/blog/static/165227073201058925589/ 中国台湾姓氏排行] [China (Taiwanese) Surname Ranking]." 8 June 2010. Accessed 31 Mar 2012. {{zh icon}}</ref> the ten most common surnames on Taiwan are [[ChenTrần (surnamehọ)|ChenTrần]] (陳), [[LinLâm (surnamehọ)|LinLâm]] (林), [[HuangHoàng (surnamehọ)|HuangHoàng/Huỳnh]] (黃), [[ZhangTrương (surnamehọ)|ChangTrươngg]] (張), [[Li (surname 李họ)|Li]] (李), [[WangVương (surnamehọ)|WangVương]] (王), [[WuNgô (surnamehọ)|WuNgô]] (吳), [[LiuLưu (surnamehọ)|LiuLưu]] (劉), [[Cai (surname)|Tsai]] (蔡), and [[YangDương (surnamehọ)|YangDương]] (楊).
Taiwanese surnames include some archaic ones which have since become rare in China such as [[RuanNguyễn (surnamehọ)|RuanNguyễn]] (阮), which became the common [[Vietnamese surname]] "[[Nguyen (surname)|Nguyen]]"{{spaced ndash}}and some local variants like [[Tu (surname)|Tu]] (塗) which do not even appear among the ''[[HundredBách Familygia Surnamestính]]''. However, names on Taiwan show less diversity than China as a whole: the top ten comprise 52.63% of the Taiwanese population and the top hundred 96.11%.<ref name="TaiRank"/> There were also only 1,989 surnames recorded by the Ministry's survey,<ref name="TaiRank"/> against China's four or five thousand.
As is typical of China as a whole, these surnames conflate many different lineages and origins, although tradition may bind them to the same [[ancestral temple]]s and rituals or [[incest taboo|ban intermarriage]]. For example, some aboriginal Taiwanese adopted the surname [[PanPhan (surnamehọ)|PanPhan]] (潘) from modification of their status as "barbarians" (番, ''fan'').<!--cite@Pan--> Some Taiwanese converts to [[Presbyterian Church in Taiwan|Presbyterianism]] adopted the name [[Kai (surname)|Kai]] (偕, <small>[[pinyin|pin.]]</small> ''Xié'') in honor of the Canadian missionary [[George Leslie Mackay]] (馬偕, <small>[[POJ]]</small> ''Má-kai'').{{citation needed|date=April 2012}}
 
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