Khác biệt giữa các bản “Ong mật”

n (→‎Liên kết ngoài: clean up, replaced: {{Apidae-stub}} → {{Apinae-stub}} using AWB)
==Nguồn gốc==
Có ý kiến cho rằng, loài ong mật có tổ tiên ở châu Á, trái ngược với quan điểm trước đây cho rằng chúng xuất phát từ châu Phi. Với phương pháp phân tích gene để giải mã lịch sử tiến hóa của loài ong mật, loài ong mật (Apis mellifera) có dòng dõi cổ xưa là loài ong sống trong các hố hốc. Những con ong cổ đại này xuất thân từ châu Á khoảng 300.000 năm trước đây sau đó lan rộng sang châu Âu và châu Phi. Cây tiến hóa xây dựng từ trình tự các bộ gene không ủng hộ quan điểm cho rằng ong mật có nguồn gốc từ châu Phi. Số lượng ong mật đã và đang chịu ảnh hưởng của hiện tượng biến đổi khí hậu. Ong mật là loài côn trùng thụ phấn hàng đầu, ít nhất một phần ba số lượng thực phẩm con người sử dụng hàng ngày là sản phẩm cây trồng được thụ phấn bởi loài ong.<ref>[ Ong mật có nguồn gốc từ châu Á]</ref>
==Bee products==
{{refimprove section|date=August 2016}}
{{Main article|Honey}}
Honey is the complex substance made when bees ingest nectar, process it, and store the substance into honey combs. All living species of ''Apis'' have had their honey gathered by indigenous peoples for consumption. ''A. mellifera'' and ''A. cerana'' are the only species that have had their honey harvested for commercial purposes. Honey is sometimes also gathered by humans from the nests of various stingless bees.
In 1911, a bee culturist estimated a [[quart]] (about a [[litre]]) of honey represented bees flying over an estimated 48,000 miles to gather the nectar needed to produce the honey.<ref>[ "A Quart of Honey Means 48,000 miles of flight"] ''Popular Mechanics'', December 1911, p. 889.</ref>
{{Main article|Nectar}}
Nectar, a liquid high in sucrose, is produced in plant glands known as nectaries. It is an important energy resource for honey bees and plays a significant role in foraging economics and evolutionary differentiation between different subspecies. It was proposed through an experiment conducted with the African honey bee, [[African bee|''A. m. scutellata'']], that nectar temperature impacts the foraging decisions of honey bees.<ref name="Fewell and Bertram, 2002">{{cite journal|last=Fewell|first=Jennifer H.|author2=Susan M. Bertram|title=Evidence for genetic variation in worker task performance by African and European honeybees|journal=Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology|year=2002|volume=52|pages=318–25|doi=10.1007/s00265-002-0501-3}}</ref>
{{Main article|Beeswax}}
Worker bees of a certain age secrete [[beeswax]] from a series of glands on their abdomens. They use the wax to form the walls and caps of the comb. As with honey, beeswax is gathered by humans for various purposes.
{{Main article|Bee pollen}}
Bees collect [[pollen]] in their [[pollen basket]]s and carry it back to the hive. In the hive, pollen is used as a [[protein]] source necessary during brood-rearing. In certain environments, excess pollen can be collected from the hives of ''A. mellifera'' and ''A. cerana''. It is often eaten as a health supplement. It also has been used with moderate success as a source of pollen for [[Hand-pollination|hand pollination]] However, pollen collected by bees and harvested for pollination must be used within a few hours because it loses its potency rapidly, possibly because of the effects of enzymes or other chemicals from the bees.{{citation needed|date=October 2014}}
===Bee bread===
Worker bees combine pollen, honey and glandular secretions and allow it to ferment in the comb to make bee bread. The fermentation process releases additional nutrients from the pollen and can produce antibiotics and fatty acids which inhibit spoilage. Bee bread is eaten by [[Worker bee#Nurse bee (days 3–11)|nurse bees]] (younger workers) who then produce the protein-rich royal jelly needed by the queen and developing larvae in their hypopharyngeal glands.
{{Main article|Propolis}}
[[Propolis]], or bee glue, is created by bees from resins, balsams, and [[Sap (plant)|tree sap]]s. Some species use propolis to seal cracks in the hive. [[Apis florea|Dwarf honey bees]] use propolis to defend against ants by coating the branch, from which their nest is suspended, to create a sticky moat. Propolis is consumed by humans as a health supplement in various ways and also used in some cosmetics.
== Hình ảnh ==