Khác biệt giữa các bản “Ketamin”

không có tóm lược sửa đổi
| metabolism = [[Liver]] ([[demethylation|''N''-demethylation]]):<ref name="MathewZarate2016" /><ref>{{Cite journal |last1= Hijazi |first1= Y |last2= Boulieu |first2= R |title= Contribution of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 isoforms to N-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes |journal= [[Drug Metabolism and Disposition]] |volume= 30 |issue= 7 |pages= 853–8 |date= July 2002 |pmid= 12065445 |doi= 10.1124/dmd.30.7.853}}</ref><br />• Major: [[CYP3A4]]<br />• Minor: [[CYP2B6]], [[CYP2C9]]
| metabolites = • [[Norketamine]]<br />• [[Dehydronorketamine]]<br />• [[Hydroxynorketamine]]<br />• [[Conjugation (biochemistry)|Conjugates]]<ref name="Levine2003">{{cite book|author=Barry Levine|title=Principles of Forensic Toxicology|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=k7BInEQ-iqgC&pg=PA282|year=2003|publisher=Amer. Assoc. for Clinical Chemistry|isbn=978-1-890883-87-4|pages=282–|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170908185726/https://books.google.com/books?id=k7BInEQ-iqgC&pg=PA282|archivedate=8 September 2017|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
| onset = • Intravenous: seconds<ref name="sinner" /><br />• Intramuscular: 1–5 min<ref name="sinner" /><ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref><br />• Subcutaneous: 15–30 min<ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref><br />• Insufflation: 5–10 min<ref name="sinner" /><br />• By mouth: 15–30 min<ref name="sinner" /><ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref>
| elimination_half-life = • Ketamine: 2.5–3 hours<ref name="sinner" /><ref name="MathewZarate2016" /><br />• Norketamine: 12 hours<ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref>
| duration_of_action = • Intramuscular: 0.5–2 hours<ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref><br />• Insufflation: 45–60 min<ref name="sinner" /><br />• By mouth: 1–6+ hours<ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref><ref name="sinner" />
| duration_of_action = • Intramuscular: 0.5–2 hours<ref name="Quibell2011" /><br />• Insufflation: 45–60 min<ref name="sinner" /><br />• By mouth: 1–6+ hours<ref name="Quibell2011" /><ref name="sinner" />
| excretion = • [[Urine]]: 91%<ref name="MathewZarate2016" /><br />• [[Feces]]: 1–3%<ref name="MathewZarate2016" />