Khác biệt giữa các bản “Hoàng thành Thăng Long”

more information about Hanoi Citadel
(more information about Hanoi Citadel)
[[Thể loại:Công trình kiến trúc cổ]]
[[Thể loại:Thành cổ Việt Nam|Hà Nội]]
 
'''Hanoi Citadel'''The magnificent, imposing Hanoi Citadel has stood the test of time over 8 centuries in the land of Thang Long (present-day Hanoi). In the Ly Dynasty (1009-1225), the Thang Long (Hanoi) Citadel was built as replacement for Dai La Citadel. During the dynasties of the Tran (1225-1400) and the Le (1428-1788), the Thang Long Citadel underwent some repairs. Under the Nguyen Dynasty, Phu Xuan (Hue) was made the capital of the country and the Hanoi Citadel only served as the seat of the General Governor of the North. Therefore, its size was reduced.
The ancient Hanoi Citadel had three encircling walls. Within the inner wall was Tu Cam Thanh (the Purple Forbidden Citadel) where the King and his family lived. This Citadel had been called differently through various dynasties: Cung Thanh in the Ly Dynasty, Long Phuong in the Tran, and Cam Thanh (the Forbidden Citadel) in the Le. Doan Mon functioned as the only gate connecting the Purple Forbidden Citadel with Hoang Thanh (the Royal Citadel).
The Royal Citadel lied inside the middle wall where royal audiences were held. It also housed offices and residences of mandarins. Time has taken its tolls to many gates linking the Royal Citadel with Kinh Thanh (the outmost wall); only Bac Mon (the Northern Gate) in present-day Phan Dinh Phung Street has survived.
Common people inhabited the earthen outmost wall, Kinh Thanh. Kinh Thanh used to have many opened gates. During the Le Dynasty, 16 gates were recorded, but by the Nguyen Dynasty, only 12 of them had survived. Of the five gates remaining until the early 20"1 century (Cho Dua, Dong Mac, Cau Den, Cau Giay and Quan Chuong), only Quan Chuong gate has been preserved to date. The remaining four gates now live in the memory of Hanoians. The vestiges of the ancient earthen wall can be seen at Dai La, Hoang Hoa Tham, and La Thanh roads.
In preparation for the great events to take place in Thang Long - Hanoi, much has been done to restore the Thang Long (Hanoi) Citadel.
'''Bac Mon'''Bac Mon (the Northern Gate) was the only gate of Hoang Thanh that has been preserved almost intact since the Nguyen Dynasty. It used to link Hoang Thanh and Kinh Thanh, which were once separated by a 20m wide ditch.
The finishing touches have been put to the restoration of Bac Mon. Its new wooden door, 16 tons in weight, spreads over 24m , running on bronze wheels weighing some 80kg. However, the two holes caused by the cannonballs from a French war ship on 25 April 1873 in its outside wall still remain. Bac Mon now is open to tourists
 
'''Hau Lau'''In the past, Hau Lau (the Back Pavilion) lied behind, or to the north of Hanh Cung, the main group of architectural constructions in the Hanoi Citadel. According to fengshui (geomancy), the Pavilion would stand guard over the north of Hanh Cung, hence its another name Tinh Bac Lau. Legend has it that whenever the King went on long trips of inspection; his princess would make a stopover at the Pavilion. This gave account to its another name Lau Cong Chua (Princess's Pavilion).
'''Doan Mon'''Doan Mon is the original name of this three-entrance Gate. The main entrance was reserved for the King. Above Doan Mon lied a watchtower built of stone and bricks. The restoration of the Gate was finished in October 2001; it has opened to tourists since then.
By [http://www.relaxindochina.com/hanoi_vietnam.htm#hanoicitadel Vietnam Royal Tourism Co.,LTD]
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