Khác biệt giữa các bản “Ketamin”

n
→‎top: replaced: LiverGan using AWB
n (Đã lùi lại sửa đổi của 2405:4800:10B7:87F:DD55:BFC6:69BB:FD0D (Thảo luận) quay về phiên bản cuối của Tuanminh01)
Thẻ: Lùi tất cả
n (→‎top: replaced: LiverGan using AWB)
| bioavailability = • [[Intravenous therapy|Intravenous]]: 100%<ref name="MathewZarate2016">{{cite book|author1=Sanjay J. Mathew|author2=Carlos A. Zarate, Jr.|title=Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression: The First Decade of Progress|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QDOgDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA22|date=25 November 2016|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-3-319-42925-0|pages=8–10, 14–22|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170908185726/https://books.google.com/books?id=QDOgDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA22|archivedate=8 September 2017|df=-all}}</ref><br />• [[Intramuscular injection|Intramuscular]]: 93%<ref name="MathewZarate2016" /><br />• [[Subcutaneous injection|Subcutaneous]]: high<ref name="Mao2016">{{cite book|author=Jianren Mao|title=Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_VrvBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA127|date=19 April 2016|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=978-1-4200-8900-4|pages=127–|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170908185726/https://books.google.com/books?id=_VrvBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA127|archivedate=8 September 2017|df=-all}}</ref><br />• [[Epidural administration|Epidural]]: 77%<ref name="Kintz2014">{{cite book|author=Pascal Kintz|title=Toxicological Aspects of Drug-Facilitated Crimes|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YgnUAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA87|date=22 March 2014|publisher=Elsevier Science|isbn=978-0-12-416969-2|pages=87–|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170908185726/https://books.google.com/books?id=YgnUAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA87|archivedate=8 September 2017|df=-all}}</ref><br />• [[Intranasal administration|Intranasal]]: 25–50%<ref name="MathewZarate2016" /><ref name=sinner>{{cite book |last1= Sinner |first1= B |last2 =Graf |first2= BM |chapter= Ketamine |title= Modern Anesthetics |editor-last1= Schüttler |editor-first1= J |editor-last2= Schwilden |editor-first2= H |series= Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology |year= 2008 |volume= 182 |pages= 313–33 |isbn= 978-3-540-72813-9 |doi=10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_15 |pmid=18175098}}</ref><br />• [[Sublingual administration|Sublingual]]: 30%<ref name="MathewZarate2016" /><br />• [[Rectal administration|Rectal]]: 30%<ref name="Nemeroff2017">{{cite book |author1=Alan F. Schatzberg |author2=Charles B. Nemeroff |title=The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, Fifth Edition|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=KfHEDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA550|year=2017|publisher=American Psychiatric Pub|isbn=978-1-58562-523-9|pages=550–|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170908185726/https://books.google.com/books?id=KfHEDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA550|archivedate=8 September 2017|df=-all}}</ref><br />• [[Oral administration|By mouth]]: 16–24%<ref name="Kintz2014" /><ref name="DickmanSchneider2016">{{cite book|author1=Andrew Dickman|author2=Jennifer Schneider|title=The Syringe Driver: Continuous Subcutaneous Infusions in Palliative Care|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jbUSDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA114|date=22 September 2016|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-873372-0|pages=114–|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170908185726/https://books.google.com/books?id=jbUSDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA114|archivedate=8 September 2017|df=-all}}</ref>
| protein_bound = 12–47% (low)<ref name="Kintz2014" /><ref name="sinner" /><ref name="DowdJohnson2016">{{cite book|author1=Frank J. Dowd|author2=Bart Johnson|author3=Angelo Mariotti|title=Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry – E-Book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6xT7DAAAQBAJ&pg=PA235|date=3 September 2016|publisher=Elsevier Health Sciences|isbn=978-0-323-44595-5|pages=235–}}</ref>
| metabolism = [[LiverGan]] ([[demethylation|''N''-demethylation]]):<ref name="MathewZarate2016" /><ref>{{Cite journal |last1= Hijazi |first1= Y |last2= Boulieu |first2= R |title= Contribution of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 isoforms to N-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes |journal= [[Drug Metabolism and Disposition]] |volume= 30 |issue= 7 |pages= 853–8 |date= July 2002 |pmid= 12065445 |doi= 10.1124/dmd.30.7.853}}</ref><br />• Major: [[CYP3A4]]<br />• Minor: [[CYP2B6]], [[CYP2C9]]
| metabolites = • [[Norketamine]]<br />• [[Dehydronorketamine]]<br />• [[Hydroxynorketamine]]<br />• [[Conjugation (biochemistry)|Conjugates]]<ref name="Levine2003">{{cite book|author=Barry Levine|title=Principles of Forensic Toxicology|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=k7BInEQ-iqgC&pg=PA282|year=2003|publisher=Amer. Assoc. for Clinical Chemistry|isbn=978-1-890883-87-4|pages=282–|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170908185726/https://books.google.com/books?id=k7BInEQ-iqgC&pg=PA282|archivedate=8 September 2017|df=-all}}</ref>
| onset = • Intravenous: seconds<ref name="sinner" /><br />• Intramuscular: 1–5 min<ref name="sinner" /><ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref><br />• Subcutaneous: 15–30 min<ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref><br />• Insufflation: 5–10 min<ref name="sinner" /><br />• By mouth: 15–30 min<ref name="sinner" /><ref name="Quibell2011">{{cite journal |last= Quibell |first= R |last2= Prommer |first2= EE |last3= Mihalyo |first3= M |last4= Twycross |first4= R |last5= Wilcock |first5= A |displayauthors= 4 |title= Ketamine* |journal= [[Journal of Pain and Symptom Management]] |date= March 2011 |volume= 41 |issue= 3 |pages= 640–9 |doi= 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001 |pmid= 21419322 |url= http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924%2811%2900046-7/fulltext |type= Therapeutic Review}}</ref>