Khác biệt giữa các bản “Lịch sử Triều Tiên”

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[[Image:xcoldricex6.jpg|thumb|160px|Kingfisher glazed Goryeo celadon incense burner, a [[national treasure of South Korea]].]]
 
==JoseonTriều Tiên==
{{main|JoseonTriều Dynastyđại Triều Tiên}}
 
In 1392 a Korean general, [[Taejo of Joseon|Lee Seonggye]], was sent to China to campaign against the [[Ming Dynasty]], but instead he returned to overthrow the Goryeo king and establish a new dynasty. He named it the [[Joseon Dynasty]] in honor of the previous Joseon before (Gojoseon is the first Joseon. "Go" was added to distinguish between the two). King Taejo moved the capital to [[Hanseong]] (formerly [[Hanyang]]; modern-day [[Seoul]]) and built the [[Gyeongbokgung]] palace. In 1394 he adopted [[Confucianism]] as the country's official religion, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. Joseon experienced advances in science and culture; most notably, the [[Hangul]] alphabet was invented by [[King Sejong]] in 1443. The Joseon Dynasty is believed to have been the longest-lived actively ruling dynasty in East Asia during the last millennium.
 
===EconomyKinh tế===
[[Image:First known photo of Koreans 1871.jpg|thumb|A fishing [[Junk (ship)|junk]] in 1871. This is the oldest surviving photograph known to show Koreans, taken by [[Felice Beato]] during the [[Sinmiyangyo|U.S. military campaign]].]]Joseon maintained a stable economy during peaceful times. After the Joseon court was established and completed, the economy began to prosper as well. Early during the Joseon Dynasty, the economy was stable, especially during [[King Sejong]]'s rule. However, the economy suffered after the Japanese invasions 1592-1598 and internal court corruption, bribery, and heavy tax, strained the Korean economy.
 
===SocialTôn hierarchyti xã hội===
The Joseon formed a very strict class system that greatly affected the economy. The king was at the top of the system, while the [[yangban]]s and government officials and generals were below him. Yangbans were influential scholars during the Joseon Dynasty. The middle class consisted of a few merchants and craftsmen. The bulk of the economy was in lower class of the farmers and the lowest class of the slaves who did not pay any taxes to the government. At one point, slaves comprised 30% of the population.
 
===ForeignNgoại invasionsxâm===
Joseon dealt with a pair of [[Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598)|Japanese invasions from 1592 to 1598]] (''Imjin War''). This conflict brought prominence to Admiral [[Yi Sun-sin]], and the use of [[turtle ship]]s and [[hwacha]]s by the Korean military. Subsequently, there were invasions from [[Manchuria]] in 1627 (see the [[First Manchu invasion of Korea]]) and again in 1636 (see the [[Second Manchu invasion of Korea]]), after which the Joseon dynasty recognized the legitimacy of the [[Qing]] Empire. There was trade with the Japanese at [[Busan]], and emissaries were sent to [[Edo]] in Japan. Europeans were not permitted to trade at Korean ports until the 1880s.
 
===19thThế centurykỷ 19===
[[Image:Gyeongbok-gung palace-05 (xndr).jpg|thumb|left|300px|The [[Gyeongbokgung]] Palace]]
During the 19th century, Korea tried to control foreign influence by closing the borders to all nations but China. In 1853 the [[USS South America]], an American gunboat, visited [[Busan]] for 10 days and had amiable contact with local Korean officials. Several Americans who were shipwrecked on Korea in 1855 and 1865 were also treated well and sent to China for repatriation. The Joseon court which ruled Korea, was well aware of the foreign invasions and treaties involving Qing China, as well as the [[Opium Wars]], and followed a cautious policy of slow exchange with the west. In 1866 the [[General Sherman Incident]] put Korea and the [[United States]] on a collision course.
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