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==={{visible anchor|Header}}===
Basically, the CSMA/CD algorithm can be summarized as follows:<p>
The IPv4 packet header consists of 14 fields, of which 13 are required. The 14th field is optional (red background in table) and aptly named: options. The fields in the header are packed with the most significant byte first ([[Endianness|big endian]]), and for the diagram and discussion, the most significant bits are considered to come first ([[bit numbering#MSB 0 bit numbering|MSB 0 bit numbering]]). The most significant bit is numbered 0, so the version field is actually found in the four most significant bits of the first byte, for example.
• A device that wants to send a frame waits until the LAN is silent – in other words, no frames are currently being sent – before attempting to send an electrical signal.<p>
• If a collision still occurs, the devices that caused the colision wait a random amuont of time and then try again.<p>
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
CSMA/CD logic help prevent collisions and also defines how to act when a coolision does occur. The CSMA/CD algorithm works like this:<p>
Step 1: A device with a frames to send listens until the Ethernet is not busy.<p>
! style="width:4%;"|bit offset
Step 2: When the Ethernet is not busy, the sender(s) begin(s) sending the frame.<p>
! colspan="4" style="width:12%;"| 0–3
Step 3: The sender(s) listen(s) to make sure that no collision occurred.<p>
! colspan="4" style="width:12%;"| 4–7
Step 4: If a collision occurrs, the devices that had been sending a frame each send a jamming signal to ensure that all stations recognize the collision.<p>
! colspan="6" style="width:24%;"| 8–13
Step 5: After the jamming in complete, each sender randomizes a timer and waits that long before trying to resend the collided frame.<p>
! colspan="2" style="width:6%;"| 14-15
Step 6: When each random timer expires, the process starts over with Step 1.
! colspan="3" style="width:9%;"| 16–18
! colspan="13" style="width:39%;"| 19–31
! 0
| colspan="4"| Version
| colspan="4"| Internet Header Length
| colspan="6"| [[Differentiated Services Code Point]]
| colspan="2"| [[Explicit Congestion Notification]]
| colspan="16"| Total Length
! 32
| colspan="16"| Identification
| colspan="3"| Flags
| colspan="13"| Fragment Offset
! 64
| colspan="8"| [[Time to Live#IP packets|Time to Live]]
| colspan="8"| [[List of IP protocol numbers|Protocol]]
| colspan="16"| [[Header checksum]]
! 96
| colspan="32"| Source IP Address
! 128
| colspan="32"| Destination IP Address
! 160
| colspan="32" style="background:#fbb;"| Options ( if Header Length > 5 )
! 160<br>or<br>192+
| colspan="32"| &nbsp;<br />Data<br />&nbsp;
; Version : The first header field in an IP [[packet (information technology)|packet]] is the four-bit version field. For IPv4, this has a value of 4 (hence the name IPv4).
; Internet Header Length (IHL) : The second field (4 bits) is the Internet Header Length (IHL), which is the number of 32-bit [[Word (data type)|words]] in the header. Since an IPv4 header may contain a variable number of options, this field specifies the size of the header (this also coincides with the offset to the data). The minimum value for this field is 5 (RFC 791), which is a length of 5×32 = 160 bits = 20 bytes. Being a 4-bit value, the maximum length is 15 words (15×32 bits) or 480 bits = 60 bytes.
; Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)
:Originally defined as the [[Type of Service]] field, this field is now defined by RFC 2474 for [[Differentiated services]] (DiffServ). New technologies are emerging that require real-time data streaming and therefore make use of the DSCP field. An example is [[Voice over IP]] (VoIP), which is used for interactive data voice exchange.
; Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) : This field is defined in RFC 3168 and allows end-to-end notification of [[network congestion]] without dropping packets. ECN is an optional feature that is only used when both endpoints support it and are willing to use it. It is only effective when supported by the underlying network.
; Total Length : This 16-bit field defines the entire datagram size, including header and data, in bytes. The minimum-length datagram is 20 bytes (20-byte header + 0 bytes data) and the maximum is 65,535 bytes — the maximum value of a 16-bit word. The largest datagram that any host is required to be able to handle is 576 bytes, but most modern hosts handle much larger packets. Sometimes [[subnetwork]]s impose further restrictions on the size, in which case datagrams must be fragmented. Fragmentation is handled in either the host or packet switch in IPv4.
; Identification : This field is an identification field and is primarily used for uniquely identifying fragments of an original IP datagram. Some experimental work has suggested using the ID field for other purposes, such as for adding packet-tracing information to help trace datagrams with spoofed source addresses.<ref>
{{cite web | last=Savage | first=Stefan | title=Practical network support for IP traceback | url= | accessdate=2010-09-06}}</ref>
; Flags : A three-bit field follows and is used to control or identify fragments. They are (in order, from high order to low order):
:* bit 0: Reserved; must be zero.<ref group=note>As an [[April Fools']] joke, proposed for use in RFC 3514 as the "[[Evil bit]]".</ref>
:* bit 1: Don't Fragment (DF)
:* bit 2: More Fragments (MF)
:If the DF flag is set, and fragmentation is required to route the packet, then the packet is dropped. This can be used when sending packets to a host that does not have sufficient resources to handle fragmentation. It can also be used for [[Path MTU Discovery]], either automatically by the host IP software, or manually using diagnostic tools such as [[ping]] or [[traceroute]].
:For unfragmented packets, the MF flag is cleared. For fragmented packets, all fragments except the last have the MF flag set. The last fragment has a non-zero Fragment Offset field, differentiating it from an unfragmented packet.
; Fragment Offset : The fragment offset field, measured in units of eight-byte blocks, is 13 bits long and specifies the offset of a particular fragment relative to the beginning of the original unfragmented IP datagram. The first fragment has an offset of zero. This allows a maximum offset of (2<sup>13</sup> &ndash; 1) &times; 8 = 65,528 bytes, which would exceed the maximum IP packet length of 65,535 bytes with the header length included (65,528 + 20 = 65,548 bytes).
; Time To Live (TTL) : An eight-bit [[time to live]] field helps prevent datagrams from persisting (e.g. going in circles) on an internet. This field limits a datagram's lifetime. It is specified in seconds, but time intervals less than 1 second are rounded up to 1. In practice, the field has become a [[hop count]]—when the datagram arrives at a [[router (computing)|router]], the router decrements the TTL field by one. When the TTL field hits zero, the router discards the packet and typically sends a [[ICMP Time Exceeded]] message to the sender.
: The program [[traceroute]] uses these ICMP Time Exceeded messages to print the routers used by packets to go from the source to the destination.
; Protocol : This field defines the protocol used in the data portion of the IP datagram. The [[Internet Assigned Numbers Authority]] maintains a [[list of IP protocol numbers]] which was originally defined in RFC 790.
; Header Checksum : {{Main|Header checksum}} The 16-bit [[checksum]] field is used for error-checking of the header. When a packet arrives at a router, the router calculates the checksum of the header and compares it to the checksum field. If the values do not match, the router discards the packet. Errors in the data field must be handled by the encapsulated protocol. Both [[User Datagram Protocol|UDP]] and [[Transmission Control Protocol|TCP]] have checksum fields.
: When a packet arrives at a router, the router decreases the TTL field. Consequently, the router must calculate a new checksum. RFC 1071 defines the checksum calculation:
:: ''The checksum field is the 16-bit [[Ones' complement|one's complement]] of the one's complement sum of all 16-bit words in the header. For purposes of computing the checksum, the value of the checksum field is zero.''
: For example, use Hex 4500003044224000800600008c7c19acae241e2b (20 bytes IP header):
::4500 + 0030 + 4422 + 4000 + 8006 + 0000 + 8c7c + 19ac + ae24 + 1e2b = 2BBCF
::2 + BBCF = BBD1 = 1011101111010001, the 1'S of sum = 0100010000101110 = 442E
: To validate a header's checksum the same algorithm may be used - the checksum of a header which contains a correct checksum field is a word containing all zeros (value 0):
::2BBCF + 442E = 2FFFD. 2 + FFFD = FFFF. the 1'S of FFFF = 0.
; Source address
: This field is the IPv4 [[IPv4 address|address]] of the sender of the packet. Note that this address may be changed in transit by a [[network address translation]] device.
; Destination address
: This field is the IPv4 [[IPv4 address|address]] of the receiver of the packet. As with the source address, this may be changed in transit by a [[network address translation]] device.
; Options
: The options field is not often used. Note that the value in the IHL field must include enough extra 32-bit words to hold all the options (plus any padding needed to ensure that the header contains an integral number of 32-bit words). The list of options may be terminated with an EOL ([[End of Options List]], 0x00) option; this is only necessary if the end of the options would not otherwise coincide with the end of the header. The possible options that can be put in the header are as follows:
{| class="wikitable"
! Field !! Size (bits) !! Description
| Copied || 1 || Set to 1 if the options need to be copied into all fragments of a fragmented packet.
| Option Class || 2 || A general options category. 0 is for "''control''" options, and 2 is for "''debugging and measurement''". 1, and 3 are reserved.
| Option Number || 5 || Specifies an option.
| Option Length || 8 || Indicates the size of the entire option (including this field). This field may not exist for simple options.
| Option Data || Variable || Option-specific data. This field may not exist for simple options.
*Note: If the header length is greater than 5, i.e. it is from 6 to 15, it means that the options field is present and must be considered.
*Note: Copied, Option Class, and Option Number are sometimes referred to as a single eight-bit field - the ''Option Type''.
: The following two options are discouraged because they create security concerns: [[Loose Source and Record Route]] (LSRR) and [[Strict Source and Record Route]] (SSRR). Many routers block packets containing these options.{{Citation needed|date=November 2008}}