Frederick Fleet

Người thuỷ thủ sống sót sau vụ tàu Titanic

Frederick Fleet (15 tháng 10 năm 1887 – 10 tháng 1 năm 1965) là một thủy thủ, thủy thủ đoàn người Anh sống sót sau vụ đắm tàu RMS Titanic khi tàu đâm vào tảng băng trôi vào 11 giờ 40 phút tối ngày 14 tháng 4 năm 1912.[1] Cùng với người đồng cảnh sát Reginald Lee, đang làm nhiệm vụ trên tàu Titanic khi con tàu va phải tảng băng trôi, thông báo: "Tảng băng trôi, ở ngay phía trước!"[2]

Frederick Fleet
FrederickFleet.April1912.jpg
Fleet vào năm 1912
Sinh(1887-10-15)15 tháng 10 năm 1887
Liverpool, Vương quốc Anh
Mất10 tháng 1 năm 1965(1965-01-10) (77 tuổi)
Southampton, Vương quốc Anh
Nguyên nhân mấtTự tử bằng cách treo cổ
Nơi an nghỉHollybrook Cemetery
Southampton, Vương quốc Anh
Quốc tịchAnh
Nghề nghiệp

Fleet đã nói rằng trong các cuộc điều tra sau đó về vụ chìm tàu, nếu anh ta và Lee có ống nhòm: "Chúng tôi có thể nhìn thấy nó (tảng băng) sớm hơn một chút." Khi được hỏi sớm hơn bao nhiêu, anh ta trả lời, "Chà, đủ để tránh đường."[3] Trong cuộc sống sau này, Fleet đã trầm cảmtự sát bằng hình thức treo cổ vào tháng 1 năm 1965.

Tiểu sửSửa đổi

Early life and sea careerSửa đổi

Fleet was born in Liverpool on ngày 15 tháng 10 năm 1887. He never knew his father, and his mother abandoned him and fled with a boyfriend to Springfield, Massachusetts, in the United States never to be seen or heard from again.[4] Frederick was raised by a succession of foster families and distant relatives. In 1903 he went to sea as a deck boy, working his way up to able seaman.[5]

Before joining the crew of the RMS Titanic he had sailed for over four years as a lookout on the RMS Oceanic.[5] As a seaman, Fleet earned five pounds per month plus an extra 5 shillings for lookout duty.[5] It was as a lookout that Fleet joined the Titanic in April 1912, along with five other watchmen.[5]

RMS TitanicSửa đổi

 
This iceberg, photographed on the morning of ngày 15 tháng 4 năm 1912, is thought to be the one that the Titanic struck.
 
The crow's nest from which Fleet and Lee spotted the iceberg can be seen in the picture.

Fleet boarded the Titanic in Southampton on ngày 10 tháng 4 năm 1912. The ship made two stops, first in Cherbourg, France, and then in Queenstown, Ireland. The lookouts, six in total, made two-hour shifts due to extreme cold in the crow's nest.[6] The trip was uneventful until the night of ngày 14 tháng 4 năm 1912. At 22:00 (10 p.m.) that night, Fleet and his fellow lookout Reginald Lee replaced George Symons and Archie Jewell at the nest.[7] They were passed the order given earlier by second officer Charles Lightoller to watch out for small ice.[8] The night was calm and moonless, which made it difficult to spot the icebergs due to the lack of waves breaking against the base of the iceberg and reflection.[9] Despite Fleet and his fellow lookouts having repeatedly requested to be provided with binoculars,[10][11] they were not available for the lookouts. This is sometimes attributed to the last-minute change in the hierarchy of the ship when officer David Blair was replaced by Henry Tingle Wilde, without Blair mentioning where the binoculars had been located. It has been also mentioned that Blair accidentally took the keys of the cabinet containing the binoculars with him. Despite both inquiries into the disaster, nothing clarified why the lookouts were not provided with binoculars, although there are many possible explanations such as one that the White Star Line steamers' lookouts did not particularly use them.[12] Some experts have said that even using binoculars, neither Fleet nor Lee could have spotted the iceberg any sooner given the conditions of the night.[13]

At 23:39 (11:39 p.m.), Fleet first spotted the iceberg and rang the nest's bell three times to warn the bridge of something ahead. Then, using the nest's telephone, he contacted the bridge. It was answered only a few seconds later by sixth officer James Paul Moody, who asked Fleet immediately, "What did you see?" He pronounced the infamous "Iceberg! Right Ahead!" warning to Moody. Moody acknowledged Fleet's warning and immediately notified first officer William McMaster Murdoch; in charge of the bridge.[14] After the collision, Fleet and Lee remained on duty in the crow's nest for twenty more minutes.[15]

 
Lifeboat 6 approaching the RMS Carpathia; Fleet can be seen trying to tie the boat to the davits of the ship.

At 00:00 (12 a.m.), Fleet and Lee were relieved by Alfred Frank Evans and George Hogg.[16] Fleet went down to the boat deck and helped to prepare Lifeboat No. 6. Minutes later, when the boat was already prepared, second officer Lightoller put quartermaster Robert Hichens in charge of the lifeboat and ordered Fleet aboard as well.[15] As they were lowered away, Hichens and American socialite Margaret Brown realized there were only two sailors, including Fleet, to man the boat, and called for another sailor to be sent.[17] As no able seaman was near, Canadian Colonel Arthur Godfrey Peuchen volunteered to join the boat saying he had experience in sailing. He was ordered by Lightoller to reach the boat by climbing down a rope, which he did successfully.[17]

Once away from the sinking ship, the boat tried to reach the lights of a ship in the distance, thought to be the SS Californian.[18] While Hichens remained at the tiller, Fleet and Peuchen managed the oars. Arguments and problems arose on boat 6 as quartermaster Hichens kept insulting and mistreating the rowers, including Margaret Brown and Helen Churchill Candee. Later in the night, there was an argument about whether to return for survivors, with Hichens warning against returning saying they would be swamped by swimmers.[19] The lifeboat finally reached the RMS Carpathia by 6:00 a.m. on Monday, ngày 15 tháng 4 năm 1912.[20]

After the disaster, Fleet underwent two inquiries; first, the U.S. Inquiry and then the British Wreck Commissioner's inquiry. In the United States, he was questioned by Senator William Alden Smith, to whom he repeatedly said that had they been equipped with binoculars, the disaster would not have happened.[2] Before the British inquiry, he underwent a long examination, often repetitive, for which he refused to answer many of the questions. Lord Mersey, Chairman of the Commission, concluded Fleet's interrogation by telling him that he was grateful for his willingness to answer questions despite his wariness when responding to every question. Fleet replied with a sarcastic "Thanks."[21]

World War I, World War II, and later lifeSửa đổi

Fleet served in the Titanic's sister ship RMS Olympic before leaving the White Star Line in August 1912 after noticing that the company treated those involved with the Titanic differently.[22] For the next 24 years he sailed for different shipping companies, including the Union-Castle Line. Fleet served on merchant ships throughout World War I. Later, he was the ship's lookout again on the Olympic during the 1920s and early 1930s.[23] When he left the sea in 1936, he was hired by Harland & Wolff to work at the company's shipyards in Southampton.[24] While working there, he lived with his wife's brother. He served again during World War II.[15]

Later, when he was about to retire, he became a newspaper seller, going through difficult economic times.[24]

�Qua ĐờiSửa đổi

chỉ sau giáng sinh, vào ngày 28 tháng 12 năm 1964, vợ của fleet qua đời, and her brother evicted him from the house.[25] Consequently, Fleet fell into a downward spiral of depression. He returned to his brother-in-law's home and hanged himself in the house's garden on ngày 10 tháng 1 năm 1965.[25] Fleet was buried in a pauper's grave at Hollybrook Cemetery, in Southampton.[26] This grave remained unmarked until 1993, when a headstone bearing an engraving of the Titanic was erected through donations raised by the Titanic Historical Society.[25][27]

Tham khảoSửa đổi

  1. ^ Lord, Walter (2005) [1955]. A Night to Remember. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. tr. 2. ISBN 978-0-8050-7764-3.
  2. ^ a b United States Senate Inquiry Day 4, Testimony of Frederick Fleet.
  3. ^ “TIP - United States Senate Inquiry - Day 4 - Testimony of Frederick Fleet, cont”. www.titanicinquiry.org.
  4. ^ Spignesi, Stephen J. (tháng 1 năm 2012). The Titanic For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. tr. 118. ISBN 978-1-118-17766-2.
  5. ^ a b c d Stories from The Titanic, National Archives UK.
  6. ^ Golden, Frank; Tipton, Michael (tháng 6 năm 2002). Essentials of Sea Survival. Human Kinetics Pub Inc. tr. 12. ISBN 978-0-7360-0215-8.
  7. ^ Matthews, Rupert (tháng 3 năm 2011). Titanic: The Tragic Story of the Ill-fated Ocean Liner. Arcturus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84837-763-9.
  8. ^ Spignesi, Stephen J. (tháng 1 năm 2012). The Titanic For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. tr. 86. ISBN 978-1-118-17766-2.
  9. ^ Angel, Simon (tháng 4 năm 2012). The Titanic - "Everything Was Against Us". CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. tr. 53. ISBN 978-1-4751-2793-5.
  10. ^ historicsouthampton.wordpress.com/. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 18 tháng 6 năm 2018. Truy cập ngày 15 tháng 5 năm 2021.
  11. ^ encyclopedia-titanica.org
  12. ^ Maltin, Tim; Aston, Eloise (tháng 11 năm 2011). 101 Things You Thought You Knew about the Titanic - But Didn't!. Penguin Books. tr. 33. ISBN 978-0-14-311909-8.
  13. ^ 10 causes of the Titanic tragedy Lưu trữ 2014-03-15 tại Wayback Machine, NBC news.
  14. ^ Spignesi, Stephen J. (tháng 1 năm 2012). The Titanic For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. tr. 304. ISBN 978-1-118-17766-2.
  15. ^ a b c Fred Fleet did his duty on Titanic, now resting in peace, Herald Dispatch.
  16. ^ Kuntz, Tom (tháng 10 năm 2010). The Titanic Disaster Hearings. Gallery Books. tr. 184. ISBN 978-1-4516-2347-5.
  17. ^ a b Brewster, Hugh (tháng 3 năm 2012). Gilded Lives, Fatal Voyage: The Titanic's First-Class Passengers and Their World. Crown. ISBN 978-0-307-98481-4.
  18. ^ Lord, Walter (tháng 3 năm 2013). The Complete Titanic Chronicles: A Night to Remember and The Night Lives On. Open Road Media. ISBN 978-1-4804-1058-9.
  19. ^ Spignesi, Stephen J. (tháng 1 năm 2012). The Titanic For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. tr. 51. ISBN 978-1-118-17766-2.
  20. ^ Shapiro, Marc (tháng 5 năm 2013). Total Titanic. Boylston Multimedia. ISBN 978-0-671-01202-1.
  21. ^ Chirnside, Mark (2004). The 'Olympic' class ships: Olympic, Titanic, Britannic. Tempus. tr. 206, 207. ISBN 978-0-7524-5895-3.
  22. ^ Hooper McCarty, Jennifer; Foecke, Tim (tháng 2 năm 2008). What Really Sank the Titanic. Citadel; 1 edition. tr. 230. ISBN 978-0-8065-2895-3.
  23. ^ On A Sea Of Glass: The Life & Loss Of The RMS Titanic" by Tad Fitch, J. Kent Layton & Bill Wormstedt. Amberley Books, March 2012. p 371
  24. ^ a b Spignesi, Stephen J. (tháng 1 năm 2012). The Titanic For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. tr. 47. ISBN 978-1-118-17766-2.
  25. ^ a b c Edmonds, Robert (2009). "Frederick Fleet (1887–1965)". Maritime Quest. Truy cập ngày 12 tháng 8 năm 2018.
  26. ^ “Three Men on the Titanic”. Maritime Executive. ngày 15 tháng 4 năm 2018. Truy cập ngày 17 tháng 7 năm 2019.
  27. ^ Frederick Fleet biography Lưu trữ 2018-03-23 tại Wayback Machine. Biography.com. ngày 12 tháng 8 năm 2018.

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