Thành viên:Đông Minh/Công việc 2
Global Empire (German language: Weltreich, Dutch language: Wereldrijk) is the concept of imperial domination of the world or the world, belonging to the super imperialist category, often a mighty country with a vast and influential territory around the world. "Global" or "world" means that the territory under its sovereignty is spread throughout the world. The basic criterion is that when sailing in the world, the territory from the westernmost point to the easternmost point must be at least one half of the world perimeter (about 20,000 km, or 12,400 miles), "global" means Empire must pass at least 180 degrees longitude and at least 90 degrees latitude. For example, since the territory of the Spanish Empire was extended all over the world, it was often called the "Empire of the Sun" (in the 16th century). This claim was later applied to the British Empire (in the late 19th century).
In the history of the world there existed many empires, but no empire ever dominated the entire world, the British Empire was recorded as the largest empire in history also accounted for only 1/4 surface of the world. The fundamental cause is that no nation with sufficient population and military potential can help it conquer and dominate all the land on Earth. Even today, China with the world's largest population, about 1.5 billion people, also accounts for only one-fifth of the world's population. It is the demographic limitation that is almost throughout history that even the most populous countries can not occupy the entire world. The concept of global imperialism, therefore, is a concept that does not emphasize the sovereignty of the whole world, but dominates part of the world, but must necessarily spread in space. In addition, the concept of global imperialism underscores the aspect of influence, empires that are considered global imperatives to excel in influencing world politics against all other nations, and that influence must be widespread.
Typically, the territory of the British Empire is considered, although it occupies only one-fourth of the world's surface, but British colonial territories are on every continent, from Europe to Asia, Africa, America and Oceania, the British empire has spread in a global sphere of coverage. Strategic colonies (Gibraltar, Cape Town, Suez, Singapore, Hong Kong...) became a naval base, a logistical base linking the imperial network, helping Britain to protect the colonies. The rapid deployment of military forces throughout the commercial maritime routes, the basis for the strong presence of the Royal Navy, ensured the prosperity of the British Empire. In addition, Britain exerted global power by manipulating the entire South American and Qing trade.
One prominent element of the global empire in terms of influence is the ability to use force on a wide range of the world. An empire is usually built not by the free will of many nations, but through conquest. Global imperialism is indispensable for violence. It needs a mighty military force, and the force must focus on naval and air power with superior logistics, transport and information capabilities. This gave the empire the ability to carry out combat on all continents in any situation where the emergence of a hostile force emerged.
The empires were considered the first global empires in world history were the Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire in general sense. Between 1498 and 1580, Portugal with a large fleet established a maritime network around the world, with forts, factories or trading posts on the five continents. From Europe, South America and Africa to the Indian Ocean reaching out to China, East Timor and Japan. The Portuguese empire was a network of thousands of km long connecting land, land rented or simply commercial. Through that system, Portugal dominated the spice trade from the East to Europe, gaining a lot of profits and becoming prosperous. Portugal, due to the small population weakness, did not give them a military advantage, so they often used tricks to build their businesses, often using force only to fight when trade was threatened.
The Spanish empire built a more empirical empire by occupying vast territories on many continents. In 1522, Spanish troops landed in Mexico, in 1565 they brought troops to the Philippines. This is because Spain´s wealth was based on farming, cattle, minery and trade, which required land, rather than just trading as the Portuguese.
Newer forces emerge as global imperialists, the Dutch empire, which resembles Portugal in the construction of commercial empire. But due to political and religious differences, the Dutch regime was republican, opposed to monarchist values and they were Protestant against Roman Catholicism, so the war often took place between the Netherlands and Portugal, Spain. During the 17th century, the Netherlands was the most prosperous country in Europe with the largest naval and navy fleet. The rise of the Netherlands and the ongoing wars with many European countries finally led to both Spain and Portugal degrading. But the Dutch global power also came to an end before the rise of France and Britain. The British beat the Dutch out of North America, British capitalism emerged competing undermining the Netherlands. Under Louis XIV of France, 200,000 French troops overran the Netherlands, wars devastated and the Netherlands lost its golden age.
France emerged to build its first global strength in the seventeenth century through the conquest of the central plains of North America but failed in the Seven Years' War, causing France to be expelled by the British colonies. By the time Napoleon came to power in 1799, France attempted to conquer Europe, making a large-scale war with Britain once again, and at the same time Napoleon sought to conquer the entire world. He lost his last battle at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815, ending his efforts to rule Europe and the world of France. France in the industrial age of the late 19th century tried to rebuild its own global empire but the most glorious period that France had under Napoleon I had never been able to regain. Rather, it is the second-largest power behind Britain, a close ally, like the case of a close British ally next to the United States.
Global hegemony failedSửa đổi
In addition to the global empires that have existed since the early 16th century, at the end of the 19th century and early twentieth century, Germany reunited and Japan re-established sovereignty, the two countries attempted to build their empire. Hitler's new European conqueror after Napoleon frankly expressed his intention to conquer the world. Japan also conducted military adventures to occupy the world. In 1927, Prime Minister Tanaka Giichi submitted to the Emperor 4-step world hegemony: Step 1, taking over Manchuria. Step 2, occupy China. Step 3, occupy Asia. Step 4, take over the world. The last military adventures led to catastrophic defeat for both countries, Nazi Germany and Japanese imperialism collapsed in 1945.
In his book The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: Nazi History, William Lawrence Shirer emphasized in the afterword ("The World after 1945") that in the era of nuclear weapons, the emergence of a Hitler-style conqueror is impossible, and that, hence, Hitler was the last conqueror in history.
Global imperialism todaySửa đổi
The period of imperialism ended, but the new imperialism was quickly replaced, and the characteristics of the new global empire were imperialist states that no longer occupied the land as centuries. In the past, they have penetrated the global market, exploited and scrounged resources, seized the economy, manipulated the politics of small nations in the continent. Western imperialism is now hiding privately through transnational corporations. They use force when necessary when their rights are violated. So the concept of global imperialism is probably no longer accurate, but rather the concept of "global hegemony" or "hegemonic world."
Zygmunt Bauman, Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Leeds, concludes that because of the size of the world, the new empire can not be mapped: "The new empire is not an entity that can be drawn on. Mapping an imperial map would be a nonsense because the most visible "empire" feature of the new empire was to observe and treat the entire planet as a land potential utilization..."
The United States today stands out in the Western world but continually denies itself as an empire, but the media recognizes the United States as a superpower and a hegemon. The United States maintains a system of military bases throughout the globe that provides the basis for the rapid deployment of military forces, protecting the economic system, and preventing threats to security and prosperity the United States.
Kenneth Pomeranz and Harvard historian Niall Ferguson share the view: "With US military bases in more than 120 countries, we hardly see the end of the empire. This vast archipelago of US military bases outstripped ambitions in the 19th century of the British Empire, although they had many colonies, the American imperial vision was much more global..."
See alsoSửa đổi
- ^ Ferguson, Niall (2004b). Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02329-5.
- ^ Maddison, Angus (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 92-64-18608-5. Retrieved 22 July 2009, pp 97, 241.
- ^ Ferguson, Niall (2004). Colossus: The Price of America's Empire. Penguin. ISBN 1-59420-013-0. Retrieved 22 July 2009, pp 15.
- ^ Elkins, Caroline (2005). Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya. New York: Owl Books, pp 5.
- ^ “Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)”. National Bureau of Statistics of China. 28 tháng 4 năm 2011. Bản gốc lưu trữ ngày 15 tháng 1 năm 2013. Truy cập ngày 14 tháng 6 năm 2013.
- ^ Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich At War. New York: Penguin Group, pp 7.
- ^ Europe: An Unfinished Adventure, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004), pp 55-56.
- ^ Kenneth Pomeranz, "Empire & ‘Civilizing’ Missions, Past & Present, Daedalus, 134/2, (2005): pp 43, 45.