==Lưỡng viện và độc viện ==
In a Westminster system, some members of parliament are elected by popular vote, while others are appointed. All Westminster-based parliaments have a [[lower house]] with powers based on those of the [[British House of Commons|House of Commons]] (under various names), comprising local, elected representatives of the people. Most also have a smaller upper house, which is made up of members chosen by various methods:
*De facto appointees of the cabinet or premier (such as the [[Canadian Senate]] and most members of the British [[House of Lords]])
*Direct election (such as the [[Australian Senate]])
*Election by sub-national governments (such as the Indian [[Rajya Sabha]])
*Membership determined only by heredity (91 members of the House of Lords)
In Britain, the lower house is the de facto legislative body, while the upper house practices restraint in exercising its constitutional powers and serves as a consultative body. In other Westminster countries, however, the upper house can sometimes exercise considerable power.