Khác biệt giữa các bản “Thành viên:Nad 9x/Nháp”

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==Life and career==
===1958–81: Early life and career beginnings===
Madonna was born in [[Bay City, Michigan|Bay City]], Michigan, on August 16, 1958. Her father, Silvio Anthony Ciccone, is amột first-generation [[Italian American]] (with roots in [[Pacentro]], Italy), while her mother, Madonna Louise (née Fortin), was of [[French Canadian]] descent.<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=10}}</ref> Her father later worked as a design engineer for [[Chrysler]] and [[General Motors]]. Madonna was nicknamed "Little Nonni" to distinguish her from her mother.<ref name="nowmadonna">{{chú thích báo|first=Denise|last=Worrell|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,957025,00.html |title=Now: Madonna on Madonna|work=[[Time (magazine)|Time]]|date=1985-05-27|accessdate=2008-06-05}}</ref><ref name="thechild">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1400097/The-child-who-became-a-star.html|title=The Child Who Became a Star: Madonna Timeline|work=[[The Daily Telegraph]]|date=2006-07-26|accessdate=2008-06-09| location=London}}</ref> The third of six children from the same two parents, her full-blood siblings are: Martin, Anthony, Paula, [[Christopher Ciccone|Christopher]], and Melanie.<ref name="foxbio">{{chú thích báo| url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,193740,00.html?sPage=fnc.entertainment/madonna |title=Madonna Biography, Discography, Filmography|publisher=[[Fox News Channel]]|accessdate=2008-06-05|date=2008-01-03}}</ref> Madonna was raised [[Roman Catholic]]. Upon receiving confirmation, she adopted [[Saint Veronica|Veronica]] as an additional [[Confirmation#Confirmation_name|confirmation name]].<ref>{{harvnb|Guilbert|2002|p=92}}</ref> She was raised in the Detroit suburbs of [[Pontiac, Michigan|Pontiac]] and Avon Township (now part of [[Rochester Hills, Michigan|Rochester Hills]]).
 
Her mother died of [[breast cancer]] at the age of 30 in 1963.<ref name="foxbio"/> Months before her mother's death, Madonna noticed changes in her behavior and personality from the attentive homemaker she was, although she did not understand the reason.<ref name="mom"/> Mrs. Ciccone, at a loss to explain her dire medical condition, would often begin to cry when questioned by Madonna, at which point Madonna would respond by wrapping her arms around her mother tenderly. "I remember feeling stronger than she was," Madonna recalled, "I was so little and yet I felt like she was the child."<ref name="mom"/> Madonna later acknowledged that she had not grasped the concept of her mother dying. "There was so much left unsaid, so many untangled and unresolved emotions, of remorse, guilt, loss, anger, confusion. [...] I saw my mother, looking very beautiful and lying as if she were asleep in an open casket. Then I noticed that my mother's mouth looked funny. It took me some time to realize that it had been sewn up. In that awful moment, I began to understand what I had lost forever. The final image of my mother, at once peaceful yet grotesque, haunts me today also."<ref>{{harvnb|Morton|2002|p=47}}</ref>
[[File:Madonna 1990 cropped.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=The image of a young blond woman. She is wearing a black coat. Her hair is short, straight and parted from the left to the right. She has bright red lips and appears to be speaking to someone on her left while looking down.|Madonna during the [[Blond Ambition World Tour]]]]
 
In June 1986, Madonna released her third studio album, ''[[True Blue (Madonna album)|True Blue]]'', which was inspired by and dedicated to Sean Penn.<ref>{{harvnb|Clerk|2002|p=77}}</ref> ''[[Rolling Stone]]'' magazine was generally impressed with the effort, writing that the album "sound[s] as if it comes from the heart".<ref>{{chú thích web|title=Madonna: True Blue: Review|work=Rolling Stone|publisher=Jann Wenner |last=Sigerson|first=David|date=1986-07-07|accessdate=2008-05-28|url=http://www.rollingstone.com/music/reviews/album/7076/36379}}</ref> It spawned three number one singles on the ''Billboard'' Hot 100: "[[Live to Tell]]", "[[Papa Don't Preach]]" and "[[Open Your Heart (Madonna song)|Open Your Heart]]", and two more top-five singles: "[[True Blue (Madonna song)|True Blue]]" and "[[La Isla Bonita]]".<ref name="bbsingles"/><ref name="ach"/> The album topped the charts in over 28 countries worldwide, an unprecedented achievement at the time.<ref>{{harvnb|Bohem|1990|p=78}}</ref> She also starred in the critically panned film ''[[Shanghai Surprise]]'', and made her theatrical debut in a production of [[David Rabe]]'s ''Goose and Tom-Tom'', both co-starring Penn.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.tribute.ca/people/madonna-/4085/|title=Madonna Biography|publisher=[[Tribune Entertainment]] Media Group|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref> The next year, Madonna's second feature film ''[[Who's That Girl (1987 film)|Who's That Girl]]'' was released. She contributed four songs to its soundtrack, including the [[Who's That Girl (Madonna song)|title track]] and "[[Causing a Commotion]]".<ref name="bbsingles"/> In June 1987, she embarked on the [[Who's That Girl World Tour]] which continued until September. Regarding the tour, Madonna commented "I realised that I could go from being unmoulded clay, and over time and with the help of people, I could turn myself into something else. This tour is the reflection of that belief and it's as if saying to me 'Who are you girl?' Hence the name, its the new me."<ref>{{harvnb|Voller|1999|p=29}}</ref><ref name="showstealer"/> Later that year, she released a remix album of past hits, entitled ''[[You Can Dance]]'', which reached 14 on the ''Billboard'' 200.<ref>{{chú thích web|url={{Allmusic|class=album|id=r12207|pure_url=yes}}|title=Madonna <nowiki>&#124;</nowiki> You Can Dance |date=1987-12-02|accessdate=2010-05-18|last=Erlewine|first=Stephen Thomas|publisher=Allmusic. Rovi Corporation}}</ref> Madonna and Penn filed for divorce in December 1987, citing irreconcilable differences, with Madonna's lawyer pointing to Penn's drinking problem and hishlà abusivemộtbusive nature. The divorce was finalized in January 1989.<ref name="womenworld">{{harvnb|Horton|Simmons|2007|pp=196–198}}</ref> Of her marriage to Penn, Madonna later said, "I was completely obsessed with my career and not ready to be generous in any shape or form."<ref name=secretlife/>
 
{{Quote box|width=220px|align=right|quote="In ''Like a Prayer'' I've been dealing with more specific issues that mean a lot to me. They're about an assimilation of experiences I've had in my life and in relationships. They're about my mother, my father and my bonds with my family about the pain of dying, or growing up and letting go. [The album] was a real coming-of-age record for me emotionally. [...] I had to do a lot of soul-searching and I think it is amột reflection of that."|source=—Madonna talking about the inspiration behind ''Like a Prayer''.<ref>{{harvnb|Rooksby|2004|p=89}}</ref><ref name="bookalbum">{{harvnb|Bronson|2002|p=329}}</ref>
}}
In January 1989, Madonna signed an endorsement deal with soft drink manufacturer [[Pepsi]]. In one of her Pepsi commercials, she debuted her song "[[Like a Prayer (song)|Like a Prayer]]". The corresponding music video featured many Catholic [[Christian symbolism|symbols]] such as [[stigmata]] and burning crosses, and a dream about making love to a saint, leading the [[Holy See|Vatican]] to condemn the video. Religious groups sought to ban the commercial and boycott Pepsi products. Pepsi revoked the commercial and canceled her sponsorship contract. However, she was allowed to retain her fee of five million dollars.<ref name = "foxbio"/> The song was included on Madonna's fourth studio album, ''[[Like a Prayer]]'', which was co-written and co-produced by [[Patrick Leonard]] and [[Stephen Bray]].<ref>{{cite video|date=1989|title=[[Like a Prayer]]|medium=Audio CD|accessdate=2007-12-16|people=Madonna|publisher=Sire Records}}</ref> ''Rolling Stone'' hailed it as "...as close to art as pop music gets".<ref name="laprsreview">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.rollingstone.com/music/reviews/album/7480/37150|title=Madonna: Like A Prayer: Review|accessdate =2007-01-21|last=Considine|first=J.D.|authorlink=J.D. Considine|date=1989-04-06|work=Rolling Stone|publisher=Jann Wenner}}</ref> ''Like a Prayer'' peaked at number one on the ''Billboard'' 200 and sold 13&nbsp;million copies worldwide, with 4&nbsp;million copies sold in the U.S. alone.<ref name="bbalbums"/><ref>{{harvnb|Clerk|2002|p=146}}</ref> Six singles were released from the album, including "Like a Prayer", which reached number-one, and "[[Express Yourself (Madonna song)|Express Yourself]]" and "[[Cherish (Madonna song)|Cherish]]", both peaking at number two.<ref name="bbsingles"/><ref name="ach"/> By the end of the 1980s, Madonna was named as the "Artist of the Decade" by media such as MTV, ''Billboard'' and ''[[Musician (magazine)|Musician]]'' magazine.<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=217}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|title=Michael, Madonna Top 'Billboard' Poll|author=Press release|work=[[Dayton Daily News]]|publisher=[[Cox Enterprises]]|date=1990-05-25|issn=0897-0920|page=23|ref=harv}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Bego|2000|p=232}}</ref>
 
===1992–96: Maverick, ''Sex'', ''Erotica'', ''Bedtime Stories'' and ''Evita''===
[[File:EvaPerónVestidaLujosamente2.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A picture of a Evita, former first lady of Argentina. Her hair is drawn into a tight bun at the back. She is wearing a black, low-cut dress. Around her neck is amột number of chains. The lady's hands are folded in her front and she has a white fur shawl around her.|Madonna's portrayal of [[Eva Perón]] (above) in the film'' [[Evita (film)|Evita]]'' garnered her critical acclaim.]]
In 1992, Madonna had a role in ''[[A League of Their Own]]'' as Mae Mordabito, a baseball player on an all-women's team. She recorded the film's theme song, "[[This Used to Be My Playground]]", which became a Hot 100 number one hit.<ref name="ach"/> The same year, she founded her own entertainment company, [[Maverick (entertainment company)|Maverick]], consisting of a record company ([[Maverick Records]]), a film production company ([[Maverick Films]]), and associated music publishing, television broadcasting, book publishing and merchandising divisions. The deal was a joint venture with [[Time Warner]] and paid Madonna an advance of $60&nbsp;million. It gave her 20% royalties from the music proceedings, one of the highest rates in the industry, equaled at that time only by Michael Jackson's royalty rate established a year earlier with [[Sony]].<ref name="NYT - $60 million"/> The first release from the venture was Madonna's book, entitled ''[[Sex (book)|Sex]]''. It consisted of sexually provocative and explicit images, photographed by [[Steven Meisel]]. The book caused strong negative reaction from the media and the general public, but sold 1.5&nbsp;million copies at $50 each in a matter of days.<ref>{{harvnb|Morton|2002|p=54}}</ref><ref name="SEX and Erotica">{{chú thích báo |first= Gregory |last= Kirschling| url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,365681,00.html |work=Entertainment Weekly| title=The Naked Launch| accessdate=2008-05-27|date=2002-10-25}}</ref> At the same time she released her fifth studio album, ''[[Erotica (Madonna album)|Erotica]]'', which debuted at number two on the ''Billboard'' 200.<ref name="bbalbums"/><ref name="SEX and Erotica"/> Its title track peaked at number three on the ''Billboard'' Hot 100.<ref name="ach"/> ''Erotica'' also produced five further singles: "[[Deeper and Deeper]]", "[[Bad Girl (Madonna song)|Bad Girl]]", "[[Fever (Little Willie John song)|Fever]]", "[[Rain (Madonna song)|Rain]]" and "[[Bye Bye Baby (Madonna song)|Bye Bye Baby]]".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.madonna.com/discography/index/album/albumId/5/|title=Madonna.com > Discography > Erotica|work=Icon: The Official Madonna Website|publisher=Madonna.com|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref>
 
{{Quote box|width=280px|align=left|quote="This is the role I was born to play. I put everything of me into this because it was much more than a role in a movie. It was exhilarating and intimidating at the same time. And it was the farthest I've ever had to push myself creatively. At every level, I had a great education. And I am prouder of Evita than anything else I have done."<!-- [...] What drew me to the role from the beginning was the story of this remarkable woman, where she came from, how she came up in the world, the incredible amount of influence she had over an entire country and the impact she had on the whole world—truth really is stranger than fiction." --> |source=—Madonna talking about ''Evita'' and her role as Eva Perón.<ref>{{harvnb|Michael|2004|p=67}}</ref>
}}
The following year saw the release of ''[[Evita (film)|Evita]]'' in which she played the title role of [[Eva Perón]].<ref name="msn">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,295501,00.html|title=Evita (1997)|work=Entertainment Weekly|last=Gleiberman|first=Owen|date=1996-12-20|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref><ref name="evitany">{{chú thích báo|url=http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9B02E0D91E31F936A15751C1A960958260 |title=Madonna, Chic Pop Star, As Chic Political Leader|date=1996-12-06|work=The New York Times|last=Maslin|first=Janet|accessdate=2009-05-26}}</ref> For a long time, Madonna had desired to play Perón and even wrote to director [[Alan Parker]], explaining how she would be perfect for the part. After securing it, she underwent vocal training and learned about the history of Argentina and Perón. During shooting she fell sick many times, commenting that "The intensity of the scenes we have been shooting and the amount of emotional work and concentration needed to get through the day are so mentally and physically exhausting that I'm sure I will need to be institutionalized when its over." It was on the set of ''Evita'' Madonna found out that she was pregnant, which further complicated the shooting for her.<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=276}}</ref> ''Evita'' was a period drama and almost 6,000 costumes were needed for the scenes. Madonna herself wore 370 different costumes, earning her a Guinness World Record for the most costume changes in a film.<ref name="evitany"/> After its release, the film garnered critical appreciation. Zach Conner from ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine commented "It's a relief to say that ''Evita'' is pretty damn fine, well cast and handsomely visualized. Madonna once again confounds our expectations. She plays Evita with a poignant weariness and has more than just a bit of star quality. Love or hate Madonna-Eva, she is amột magnet for all eyes."<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=285}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985711,00.html|title=Cinema: Madonna and Eva Peron: You Must Love Her|last=Corliss|first=Richard|date=1996-12-16|accessdate=2010-05-26|work=Time}}</ref> Madonna won a [[Golden Globe Award]] for [[Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy|Best Actress in Motion Picture Musical or Comedy]] for the role.<ref>{{chú thích báo |first= Stephanie |last= Busari |title=Hey Madonna, Don't Give Up the Day Job!|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/SHOWBIZ/Movies/03/18/madonna.movies/?iref=mpstoryview|publisher=CNN |date=2008-03-24|accessdate=2008-03-21}}</ref> She released three singles from the [[Evita (soundtrack)|''Evita'' soundtrack album]] including "[[You Must Love Me]]" (which won an Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1997) and "[[Don't Cry for Me Argentina#Madonna version|Don't Cry for Me Argentina]]".<ref>{{chú thích web|url={{Allmusic|class=album|id=r248416|pure_url=yes}}|title=Madonna <nowiki>&#124;</nowiki> Evita <nowiki>[Original Soundtrack]</nowiki> > Overview |last=Erlewine|first=Stephen Thomas|date=1997-09-23|publisher=Allmusic. Rovi Corporation|accessdate=2010-02-24}}</ref> On October 14, 1996, Madonna gave birth to Lourdes Maria Ciccone Leon, her daughter with Leon.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-4829644.html|title=Girl for Madonna|last=Steward|first=Jason|date=1996-10-16|work=[[The Independent]]|accessdate=2010-02-24}}</ref>
 
===1997–2002: ''Ray of Light'', ''Music'' and Drowned World Tour===
After Lourdes' birth, Madonna became involved in Eastern mysticism and [[Kabbalah]]. She was introduced to the Jewish mysticism by actress [[Sandra Bernhard]] in 1997.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/kabbalah-is-madonna-losing-her-religion-407250.html|title=Kabbalah: is Madonna losing her religion?|last=Barnes|first=Anthony|date=2006-07-09|accessdate=2010-05-26|work=The Independent|location=London}}</ref> Her seventh studio album, ''[[Ray of Light]]'', (1998) reflected this change in her perception and image.<ref>{{harvnb|Rooksby|2004|p=50}}</ref> She commented: "This record, more than any other records, covers all the areas of life. I had recently joined Kabbalah and I had left off partying—but I had just had a baby, so my mood was complete, and I was incredibly thoughtful, retrospective and intrigued by the mystical aspects of life."<ref>{{harvnb|Michael|2004|p=46}}</ref> The album garnered critical acclaim and [[Slant Magazine]] declared it as "one of the great pop masterpieces of the '90s".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.slantmagazine.com/oldurlredirect.php?type=music&ID=398|title=Madonna: Ray Of Light – Music Review|date=2003-03-09|accessdate=2009-07-17|last=Cinquemani|first=Sal|publisher=[[Slant Magazine]]}}</ref> ''Ray of Light'' was honored with four [[41st Grammy Awards|Grammy Awards]], and listed as one of ''Rolling Stone''{{'}}s "[[The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time|500 Greatest Albums of All Time]]".<ref name="madonnasecret">{{chú thích báo|url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/2000/SHOWBIZ/Music/11/10/wb.madonna.album/index.html|title=Madonna's secret to making 'Music'|date=2000-11-10|publisher=CNN|accessdate=2008-02-09}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo| url=http://archer2000.tripod.com/sbs/awardsrs500.html |work=Rolling Stone| publisher=Jann Wenner|title=The Rolling Stone 500 Greatest Albums of All Time| accessdate=2008-06-06}}</ref> Topping the charts in Australia, Canada, UK and mainland Europe, the album debuted at number two on the ''Billboard'' 200—held off from the top spot by the soundtrack to the film ''[[Titanic (1997 film)|Titanic]]''—and sold over 20&nbsp;million copies worldwide.<ref name="bbalbums"/><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/150058.stm|title=Madonna: mad for fame at 40|last=Reporter|first=BBC|date=1998-08-15|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2009-11-16}}</ref> The album's first single, "[[Frozen (song)|Frozen]]", became Madonna's first single to debut at number one in the UK, while in the U.S. it became her sixth number two single and set another record for Madonna as the artist with the [[List of Billboard Hot 100 chart achievements and milestones#Most number-two hits|most number two hits]].<ref name="ach"/><ref>{{harvnb|Metz|Benson|1999|p=167}}</ref> The song was banned in Belgium, however, adjudicated to be plagiarized from Belgian songwriter Salvatore Acquaviva's 1993 song "Ma Vie Fout L'camp".<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4449580.stm|title=Madonna in plagiarism case defeat|publisher=BBC|date=2005-11-18|accessdate=2007-01-21}}</ref> The second single, "[[Ray of Light (song)|Ray of Light]]", debuted at number five on the ''Billboard'' Hot 100.<ref>{{chú thích báo|first=Graham|last=Jones|url=http://archives.cnn.com/2001/TECH/ptech/10/25/xp.london.launch/|title=Gates 'opens' Windows XP in New York|publisher=CNN|date=2001-10-25|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref> Madonna's relationship with Leon ended in December 1998; she declared that they were "better off as best friends."<ref>{{harvnb|Cross|2007|p=134}}</ref> Following their break-up, Madonna signed to play a violin teacher in the film ''[[Music of the Heart]]'' but left the project, citing "creative differences" with director [[Wes Craven]].<ref name="CNNRev">{{chú thích báo|last=Clinton|first=Paul|authorlink= Paul Clinton |title = Review: "Music of the Heart" Hits All the Right Notes|url=http://edition.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/Movies/9910/28/review.musicofheart/|date=1999-10-28|accessdate=2007-08-12|publisher=CNN}}</ref> She followed the success of ''Ray of Light'' with the single "[[Beautiful Stranger]]", recorded for the 1999 film ''[[Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me]]''. It reached number 19 on the Hot 100 solely on radio airplay and earned Madonna a Grammy Award for "[[Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media|Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media]]".<ref name="ach"/><ref name="grammy">{{chú thích web|url=http://www.grammy.com/nominees/search?artist=Madonna&title=&year=All&genre=All|title=Grammy Award Winners – Madonna|publisher=[[National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences]]|accessdate=2008-05-27}}</ref>
 
In 2000, Madonna starred in the film ''[[The Next Best Thing]]'', and contributed two songs to the film's soundtrack: "Time Stood Still" and the international hit "[[American Pie (song)|American Pie]]", a cover version of [[Don McLean]]'s 1971 song.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio2/soldonsong/songlibrary/americanpie.shtml|title=Top 100 47: American Pie|work=[[BBC Radio 2]]|last=Presenter|first=Radio 2|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref> She released her eighth studio album, ''[[Music (Madonna album)|Music]]'', in September 2000. It featured elements from the [[electronic dance music|electronica]]-inspired ''Ray of Light'' era, and catered to her gay audience.<ref name="bronmusic"/> Collaborating with French producer [[MirwaisMirwalà Ahmadzaïmộthmadzaï]], Madonna commented: "I love to work with the weirdos that no one knows about—the people who have raw talent and who are making music unlike anyone else out there. ''Music'' is the future of sound."<ref name="bronmusic">{{harvnb|Bronson|2002|p=989}}</ref> [[Stephen Thomas Erlewine]] from [[Allmusic]] felt that "''Music'' blows by in a kaleidoscopic rush of color, technique, style and substance. It has so many depth and layers that it's easily as self-aware and earnest as ''Ray of Light''.<ref>{{harvnb|Erlewine|Bogdanov|Woodstra|2002|p=245}}</ref> The album took the number one position in more than 20 countries worldwide and sold four million copies in the first ten days.<ref name="madonnasecret"/> In the U.S., ''Music'' debuted at the top, and became her first number one album in eleven years since ''Like a Prayer''.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/after-11-year-absence-madonnas-back-876212.story|title=After 11 Year Absence, Madonna's Back At No. 1|date=2000-09-28|last=Caulfield|first=Keith|work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2009-01-20}}</ref> It produced three singles: the Hot 100 number one "[[Music (Madonna song)|Music]]", "[[Don't Tell Me (Madonna song)|Don't Tell Me]]" and "[[What It Feels Like for a Girl]]".<ref name="ach"/> The music video of "What It Feels Like for a Girl" depicted Madonna committing murders and involved in car accidents, and was banned by MTV and [[VH1]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://archives.cnn.com/2001/TECH/internet/03/23/madonna.video.idg/|title=Controversial new Madonna video airs on the Web|publisher=CNN|date=2001-03-23|accessdate=2008-06-09|last=Lee|first=Hann C.}}</ref>
 
Around the same time of the ''Music'' album, Madonna became involved in a relationship with [[Guy Ritchie]], whom she had met in 1999 through mutual friends [[Sting (musician)|Sting]] and his wife, [[Trudie Styler]]. On August 11, 2000, she gave birth to their son, Rocco Ritchie.<ref>{{chú thích báo|first=CNN Reporter|url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/europe/08/11/us.madonna/index.html|title=Madonna gives birth to boy|publisher=CNN|date=2000-08-11|accessdate=2006-05-05}}</ref> In December, Madonna and Ritchie were married in an exclusive ceremony in Scotland.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/22/newsid_3290000/3290829.stm|title=Madonna Weds Her Guy|publisher=BBC|date=2000-12-22|accessdate=2008-06-05}}</ref>
[[File:Madonna Live 8 - 1.jpg|upright|thumb|alt=The front profile, from the waist up, of a middle-aged blond woman. She is wearing a white, sleeveless coat and white pants. Her hair is parted in the middle and is in locks around her face. She is holding a microphone in her right hand while her left hand is placed behind her head. She is smiling looking down. Behind her a video screen is red.| Madonna performing at the [[Live 8]] benefit concert]]
 
Following ''Die Another Day'', Madonna collaborated with fashion photographer [[Steven Klein]] in 2003 for an exhibition installation named ''[[Steven Klein|X-STaTIC Pro=CeSS]]''. It included photography from a photo shoot in ''[[W (magazine)|W]]'' magazine, and seven video segments. The installation ran from March to May in New York's [[Deitch Projects]] gallery. It then traveled the world in an edited form.<ref>{{chú thích báo|last=Lieberman|first=Rhonda|title=Weighty Madonna: Rhonda Lieberman on "X-STaTIC PRo=CeSS"|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0268/is_9_41/ai_101779141|date=2003-05-09|publisher=[[BNET]]|accessdate=2009-05-23}}</ref> Madonna released her ninth studio album, ''[[American Life]]'', which was based on her observations of American society, and received mixed reviews.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.metacritic.com/music/american-life| title=American Life by Madonna: Review |publisher=[[Metacritic]]|accessdate=2007-12-30}}</ref> She commented, "[''American Life''] was like a trip down memory lane, looking back at everything I've accomplished and all the things I once valued and all the things that were important to me."<ref name="mtvamerican"/> Larry Flick from ''[[The Advocate]]'' felt that "''American Life'' is anmộtn album that is amongmộtmong her most adventurous and lyrically intelligent. [...] It is like the flip side to 2000's ''Music'', and turns out to be a lazy, half-arsed effort to sound and take her seriously."<ref name="mtvamerican">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/bands/m/madonna/news_feature_042203/|title=Madonna: Her American Life|date=2003-04-09|accessdate=2010-05-26|last=Norris|first=John|publisher=MTV}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|last=Flick|first=Larry|title=All-Americna Girl|work=[[The Advocate]]|issue=887|page=45|issn= 0001-8996|ref=harv}}</ref> The [[American Life (song)|title song]] peaked at number 37 on the Hot 100.<ref name="ach"/> Its original music video was canceled as Madonna thought that the video, featuring violence and war imagery, would be deemed unpatriotic since America was then at war with Iraq.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,439329,00.html|title=Miss 'American'|date=2003-04-01|accessdate=2010-05-17|last=Susman|first=Gary|work=Entertainment Weekly}}</ref> With only four million copies sold worldwide, ''American Life'' was the lowest selling album of her career.<ref>{{chú thích báo| url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1500733/Thank-you-for-the-music-How-Madonnas-new-single-will-give-Abba-their-greatest-ever-hit.html|title=Thank You For the Music! How Madonna's New Single Will Give Abba Their Greatest-Ever Hit|last=Hastings| first=Chris| work=The Daily Telegraph|date=2005-10-16| accessdate=2008-01-07|location=London}}</ref> She gave another provocative performance later that year at the [[2003 MTV Video Music Awards]], while singing "[[Hollywood (Madonna song)|Hollywood]]" with [[Britney Spears]], [[Christina Aguilera]] and [[Missy Elliott]]. Madonna mouthkissed Spears and Aguilera during the performance, triggering a tabloid frenzy.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1477729/20030828/spears_britney.jhtml|title=Madonna Smooches With Britney And Christina|last=Moss|first=Corey|date=2003-08-28|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2010-02-24}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/awards/mtvmusicawards/2003-08-28-mtv-vma_x.htm| title=Madonna, Spears, Aguilera shock at MTV Awards|work=USA Today|date=2003-08-28|last=Gardner|first=Elysa|publisher=Gannett Company|accessdate=2007-01-10}}</ref> In October 2003, Madonna provided guest vocals on Spears' single "[[Me Against the Music]]".<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2003|p=233}}</ref> It was followed with the release of ''[[Remixed & Revisited]]''. The EP contained remixed versions of songs from ''American Life'' and included "Your Honesty", a previously unreleased track from the ''Bedtime Stories'' recording sessions.<ref>{{harvnb|Brackett||Hoard|2004|p=304}}</ref> Madonna also signed a contract with [[Callaway Arts & Entertainment]] to be the author of five children's books. The first of these books, entitled ''[[The English Roses]]'', was published in September 2003. The story was about four English schoolgirls and their envy and jealousy of each other.<ref>{{harvnb|Cross|2007|p=97}}</ref> Kate Kellway from ''[[The Guardian]]'' commented "[Madonna] is anmộtn actress playing at what she can never be – a [[J. K. Rowling|J.K. Rowling]], an English rose."<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/sep/21/booksforchildrenandteenagers.madonna|title=Immaterial girl|last=Kellaway|first=Kate|date=2003-09-21|accessdate=2010-05-31|work=The Guardian|location=London}}</ref> The book debuted at the top of [[The New York Times Best Seller list|''The New York Times'' Best Seller list]] and became the fastest-selling children's picture book of all time.<ref name="womenworld"/>
 
The next year, Madonna and Maverick sued [[Warner Music Group]] and its former parent company [[Time Warner]] claiming that mismanagement of resources and poor bookkeeping had cost the company millions of dollars. In return, Warner filed a countersuit alleging that Maverick had lost tens of millions of dollars on its own.<ref name=labelsuit>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3570563.stm |title=Madonna's label sues record giant |publisher=BBC |date=2004-03-26|accessdate=2008-06-07}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.nme.com/news/madonna/30546|title=Madonna sells record company|work=[[NME]]|publisher=[[IPC Media]]|accessdate=2008-06-09|date=2007-08-26|first=Jason|last=Shawhan}}</ref> The dispute was resolved when the Maverick shares, owned by Madonna and Ronnie Dashev, were purchased by Warner. Madonna and Dashev's company became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music, but Madonna was still signed to Warner under a separate recording contract.<ref name=labelsuit/> In mid-2004 Madonna embarked on the [[Re-Invention World Tour]] in the U.S., Canada and Europe. It became the highest-grossing tour of 2004, earning $125&nbsp;million.<ref>{{chú thích web| url=http://www.people.com/people/article/0,,644310,00.html|work=People|last=Silverman|first=Stephen M.|date=2004-06-01| title=Madonna Boasts Top-Grossing Show of Year| accessdate=2008-05-23}}</ref> She made a documentary about the tour named ''[[I'm Going to Tell You a Secret]]''.<ref>{{chú thích web|url={{Allmusic|class=album|id=im-going-to-tell-you-a-secret-r834380|pure_url=yes}}|title=Madonna <nowiki>&#124;</nowiki> I'm Going to Tell You a Secret|last=Erlewine|first=Stephen Thomas|date=2006-06-12|publisher=Allmusic. Rovi Corporation|accessdate=2009-10-30}}</ref> ''Rolling Stone'' ranked her at number 36 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/5702/31963/32197| title =Number 36: Madonna| work=Rolling Stone|publisher=[[Jann Wenner]]|accessdate=2008-01-03|date=2006-11-09| last=Spears|first=Britney|authorlink=Britney Spears}}</ref> In January 2005, Madonna performed a cover version of the [[John Lennon]] song "[[Imagine (song)|Imagine]]" at [[Tsunami Aid]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/2005-01-16/hollywood-music-stars-join-forces-in-tsunami/619556|title=Hollywood, music stars join forces in tsunami telethon|publisher=[[Australian Broadcasting Company]]|accessdate=2008-06-14|date=2005-01-16|agency=Associated Press}}</ref> She also performed at the [[Live 8]] benefit concert in London.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/thelive8event/|publisher=BBC|title=The Live 8 Event|accessdate=2008-06-14|first=BBC Reporter}}</ref>
|url=http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/awards/2007-12-13-rockfame_N.htm|title=Madonna, Others Named to Rock Hall of Fame|work=USA Today|publisher=Gannett Company|date= 2007-12-13 |accessdate=2007-12-13|agency=Associated Press}}</ref> At the induction ceremony on March 10, 2008,<ref name="rsinducted">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/madonna-beasties-mellencamp-up-for-rock-1003648320.story|title=Madonna, Beasties, Mellencamp Up For Rock Hall |work=Billboard|publisher=Nielsen Business Media, Inc|accessdate=2010-02-25|date=2008-03-11|last=Campbell|first=Jim}}</ref> Madonna did not sing but asked fellow Hall of Fame inductees and Michigan natives [[The Stooges]] to perform her songs "Burning Up" and "Ray of Light". She thanked Christopher Flynn, her dance teacher from 35 years earlier, for his encouragement to follow her dreams.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/03/10/entertainment/main3923437.shtml|title=Madonna Has Her Say At Rock Hall Ceremony|date=2008-03-18|work=CBS News|publisher=CBS Interactive|accessdate=2010-05-18}}</ref>
 
Madonna released her eleventh studio album, ''[[Hard Candy (Madonna album)|Hard Candy]]'', in April 2008. Containing R&B and [[Contemporary R&B|urban pop]] influences, the songs on ''Hard Candy'' were autobiographical in nature and saw Madonna collaborating with [[Justin Timberlake]], [[Timbaland]], [[Pharrell Williams]] and [[Danja (producer)|Nate "Danja" Hills]].<ref name="timbalandhot">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1566579/20070807/timbaland.jhtml|title=Timbaland Talks About HisHlà Andmộtnd Justin Timberlake's 'Hot' Collabo With Madonna|last=Reid|first=Shaheem|date=2008-08-08|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2010-04-26}}</ref> ''Rolling Stone'' complimented it as an "impressive taste of her upcoming tour."<ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|title=Madonna debuts Hard Candy|work=Rolling Stone|last=Shewey|first=Don|date=2008-05-01|publisher=Jann Wenner|issue=45|volume=1093|issn=0035-791X|ref=harv}}</ref>
{{Quote box|width=240px|align=right|quote="Probably in many respects most of the songs [on ''Hard Candy''] are [autobiographical]. But in more of an unconscious way. I don't really think about telling personal stories when I'm writing music. It just comes. And then a lot of times, six months later, eight months later, I go, 'Oh, that's what I wrote that song about.' But that's when I play the song for lots of people and they all go, 'Oh, I can totally relate to that.'"|source=— Madonna talking about the inspiration behind ''Hard Candy''<ref>{{chú thích web|last=Sischy|first=Ingrid|title=Madonna: the one and only, on her life unchained|work=[[Interview (magazine)|Interview]]|publisher=[[CNET Networks]]|date=2008-04-21|url=http://thebosh.com/archives/2008/03/madonna_interview_magazine_april_2008.php|accessdate=2008-08-21}}</ref>
}}
Madonna performed "Like a Prayer" at the [[Hope for Haiti Now: A Global Benefit for Earthquake Relief]] concert in January 2010.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1630335/20100122/madonna.jhtml|title=Madonna Brings Classic 'Like A Prayer' To 'Hope For Haiti Now' Telethon|last=Johnston|first=Maura|date=2010-01-22|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2010-01-25}}</ref> In April she released her third live album, ''[[Sticky & Sweet Tour (album)|Sticky & Sweet Tour]]''. It was her first release under Live Nation, but was distributed by Warner Bros.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.madonna.com/news/title/madonnas-sticky--sweet-concert-to-be-released-march-30th-on-dvd-bluray-and-cd|title=Madonna's 'Sticky & Sweet' Concert To Be Released March 30 On DVD, Blu-Ray And CD|work=Icon: Official Madonna website|publisher=Madonna.com|accessdate=2010-01-12|date=2010-01-12}}</ref> Following the completion of the shooting for ''W.E.'', Madonna released the "Material Girl" clothing line, which she designed with her daughter, Lourdes.<ref name="mgclothing">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE67J3YP20100820|title=Madonna sued over "Material Girl" clothing line|date=2010-08-20|accessdate=2010-11-11|work=[[Reuters]]}}</ref> The 1980s inspired clothing line, borrowed from Madonna's punk-girl style when she rose to fame in the 1980s, was released under the [[Macy's]] label.<ref name="mgclothing"/> Soon after the clothing line went on sale, apparel manufacturer L.A. Triumph Inc. sued her saying that they have been using the name Material Girl and selling clothes under that name since 1997. They demanded that Madonna's clothing line be stopped from selling and the profits be returned.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/gossip/2010/08/madonna-sued-material-girl-clothing-line-macys.html|title=Madonna sued over Material Girl clothing line for Macy's|last=D'Zurilla|first=Christie|date=2010-08-20|accessdate=2010-11-11|work=[[Los Angeles Times]]}}</ref> The Material Girl clothing was first fronted by [[Taylor Momsen]] but she was later replaced by [[Kelly Osbourne]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://hollywoodcrush.mtv.com/2011/01/25/kelly-osbourne-material-girl/|title=Kelly Osbourne, Material Girl?|date=2011-05-12|accessdate=2011-06-15|last=Vena|first=Jocelyn|publisher=MTV}}</ref> In November 2011, Madonna and MG Icon announced the release of a second fashion brand called "Truth or Dare by Madonna" to include footwear, underclothing, and accessories. The brand represents a second partnership between MG Icon and [[Macy's]]. <ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.madonna.com/news/title/madonna-and-mg-icon-announce-the-launch-of-the-truth-or-dare-by-madonna-brand-|title=Madonna And MG Icon Announce The Launch of The "Truth or Dare by Madonna" Brand|date=2011-11-03|publisher=Icon: Official Madonna website. Madonna.com|accessdate=2011-12-05}}</ref> The [[Truth or Dare (fragrance)|Truth or Dare fragrance]], the first release from the brand, appears in 2012.
 
Madonna granted American TV show ''[[Glee (TV series)|Glee]]'' the rights to her entire catalogue of music, and the producers planned an episode featuring Madonna songs exclusively.<ref name="EW">{{chú thích web |url= http://music-mix.ew.com/2009/10/21/glee-exlcusive-madonna-is-in-is-adam-lambert-next/ |title='Glee' Exclusive: Madonna is on board! Is Adammộtdam Lambert next? |last=Stack|first=Tim |date=2009-10-21|work=Entertainment Weekly |accessdate=2010-03-04}}</ref> Titled "[[The Power of Madonna]]", the episode was approved by her, telling ''[[Us Weekly]]'' that she found it "brilliant on every level", praising the scripting and the message of equality.<ref name="Us">{{chú thích web |url= http://www.usmagazine.com/moviestvmusic/news/madonna-rates-glees-all-madonna-episode-brilliant-2010164 |title=Exclusive: Madonna Rates Glee's All-Madonna Episode: "Brilliant" |work=[[Us Weekly]] |date=2010-04-16|accessdate=2010-04-21}}</ref> The episode also received positive reviews from critics. Ken Tucker of ''Entertainment Weekly'' called it "one of the best hours of TV you’re likely to see all year"., writing that the episode pays Madonna "the highest compliment possible".<ref>{{chú thích web |url= http://watching-tv.ew.com/2010/04/20/glee-power-of-madonna/ |title='Glee' review: Tonight's 'Power of Madonna' episode is one of the best hours of TV you'll see all year |last=Tucker|first=Ken |date=2010-04-20 |work=Entertainment Weekly |accessdate=2010-04-21}}</ref> ''[[Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna]]'', an EP containing eight cover versions of Madonna songs featured in the episode was released in May. The EP debuted at number one on the ''Billboard'' 200 chart, with 98,000&nbsp;copies sold in the U.S.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://music-mix.ew.com/2010/04/28/glee-tops-billboard-bieber/|title=Glee's Madonna tribute knocks Justin Bieber off No. 1 spot|first=Brad|last=Wete|work=Entertainment Weekly|date=2010-04-28|accessdate=2010-06-01}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/news/madonna-s-glee-tastic-celebration-continues-1004087053.story|title=Madonna's 'Glee'tastic 'Celebration' Continues on Hot 100, Digital Chart |date=2010-04-28|first=Keith|last=Caulfield|work=Billboard|publisher=Prometheus Global Media|accessdate=2010-04-29}}</ref> In October 2010, Madonna opened a series of [[health club|fitness centers]] around the world. Named Hard Candy Fitness, the gyms are a partnership between Madonna, her manager Guy Oseary and Mark Mastrov, the founder and CEO of [[24 Hour Fitness]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-31749_162-20020751-10391698.html|title=Madonna to Open "Hard Candy" Gym Chain|date=2010-10-26|accessdate=2010-11-11|last=Lee|first=Joyce|publisher=[[CBS News]]}}</ref> The first of the gyms was opened at [[Mexico City]] in November 2010, as Madonna believed that Mexico City served as "a great test market before bringing the gyms to cities around the world." She added, "If any of you have seen my shows, you know that I don't skimp on them, and the same is true for the gym. We spend what it takes to make a globally first-class gym."<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.spinner.com/2010/11/29/madonna-gym-hard-candy-fitness/|title=Madonna Opens First 'Hard Candy Fitness' Gym in Mexico City|last=Eisen|first=Benjy|date=2010-11-29|accessdate=2010-11-30|publisher=[[Spinner (website)|Spinner]]}}</ref> The second gym under the brand was opened at Moscow in December 2011.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.sacbee.com/2011/12/26/4145936/madonnas-second-hard-candy-fitness.html|title=Madonna's Second Hard Candy Fitness Center Now Open for Workouts in Moscow|date=2011-12-25|accessdate=2011-12-26|work=[[The Sacramento Bee]]|publisher=The McClatchy Company}}</ref>
 
Following the ''Glee'' episode and the gyms, Madonna completed directing her second feature film, ''[[W.E. (film)|W.E.]]'', a biopic about the affair between [[Edward VIII of the United Kingdom|King Edward VIII]] and [[Wallis, Duchess of Windsor|Wallis Simpson]]; it was co-written with [[Alek Keshishian]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118015190?refCatId=16|title=Madonna directing 'W.E.'|last=Jafaar|first=Ali|date=2010-02-13|work=[[Variety (magazine)|Variety]]|publisher=[[Reed Business Information]]|accessdate=2010-02-15}}</ref> ''W.E.'' premiered out of the main competition at the 2011 [[Venice Film Festival]], and received mixed reviews.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/#/news/madonna-s-w-e-receives-mixed-reactions-at-1005337952.story|title=Madonna's 'W.E.' Receives Mixed Reactions at Venice Film Festival |date=2011-09-02|first=RJ|last=Cubarubbia|work=Billboard|publisher=Prometheus Global Media|accessdate=2010-04-29}}</ref> In an interview with [[Extra (TV series)|Extra]], Madonna confirmed she had contributed a new song titled "[[Masterpiece (Madonna song)|Masterpiece]]" for the ''W.E.'' soundtrack, composed by herself, [[Julie Frost]] and [[Jimmy Harry]]. The song won the [[Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song]] at the January 15, 2012 [[69th Golden Globe Awards]].<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1677336/golden-globes-2012-madonna-best-original-song-masterpiece.jhtml|title=Madonna's 'Masterpiece' Wins The Golden Globe: Song is featured in 'W.E.,' which Madge wrote and directed.|accessdate=2012-01-16|date=2012-01-15|publisher=[[Viacom International Inc.]]|work=[[MTV News]]|author=Vena, Jocelyn}}</ref> The song will play over the end credits of the film and will be included on her twelfth studio album, whose release was confirmed in June 2011 by Madonna's manager, Guy Oseary, on his [[Twitter]] page<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://extratv.warnerbros.com/2011/12/madonna_to_perform_at_super_bowl.php|title=Madonna Breaks Super Bowl News: 'It's a Huge Deal'|date=2011-12-05|accessdate=2011-12-08|publisher=[[Extra (TV series)|Extra]]}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://idolator.com/6100542/madonna-unveils-her-masterpiece|title=Madonna Unveils Her 'Masterpiece'|author=Idolator Stuff|date=2011-12-03|accessdate=2011-12-05|publisher=[[Idolator (website)|Idolator]]. Gawker Media}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích web|last=Vena|first=Jocelyn|title=Madonna Hits The Studio This Summer|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1665782/madonna-new-album.jhtml|publisher=MTV|accessdate=2011-06-16|date=2011-06-16}}</ref> Later, Madonna clarified during the premiere of ''W.E.'' that the single will feature [[Nicki Minaj]] and [[MIA (artist)|M.I.A.]]; both would appear in the music video directed by Megaforce.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.madonna.com/news/title/fresh-news-from-the-madonna-team|title=Fresh News From The Madonna Team|date=2011-12-07|publisher=Icon: Official Madonna website. Madonna.com|accessdate=2011-12-08}}</ref> In December 2011, it was revealed that the singer had signed a three-album deal with [[Interscope Records]], who would act as the distributor.<ref name="InterscopeDeal">{{chú thích web |url=http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/madonna-interscope-live-nation-deal-273943 |title=Madonna's Interscope-Live Nation Deal Worth $40 Million; Album Due Out in March |author=Halperin, Shirley |date=2011-12-15 |work=[[The Hollywood Reporter]] |publisher=[[Prometheus Global Media]] |accessdate=2011-12-15|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/63wy2dqN9 |archivedate=2011-12-15}}</ref> It was also announced that the first single from the album, "[[Give Me All Your Luvin']]", is expected to be released in the last week of January, with the album following in March 2012.<ref name="InterscopeDeal"/> Preceding this, the [[National Football League]] (NFL) confirmed that Madonna will perform at the Bridgestone [[Super Bowl XLVI]] Halftime Show to be broadcast on [[NBC]] on February 5, 2012, from [[Lucas Oil Stadium]] in Indianapolis. The performance will be visualized by [[Cirque Du Soleil]] and [[Jamie King]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.billboard.com/#/news/madonna-fans-rejoice-new-album-due-in-spring-1005338582.story|title=Madonna Fans Rejoice: New Album Due in Spring 2012|date=2011-09-03|first=Keith|last=Caulfield|work=Billboard|publisher=Prometheus Global Media|accessdate=2011-10-29}}</ref><ref name="nfl12">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d824bf8ea/article/super-bowl-xlvi-halftime-show-will-feature-madonna|title=Super Bowl XLVI Halftime show will feature Madonna|date=2011-12-04|publisher=[[National Football League]]|accessdate=2011-12-05}}</ref> Madonna confirmed the title of her twelfth studio album on January 2012, as ''[[M.D.N.A.]]''.<ref name="albumtitle">{{chú thích web|url=http://www.madonna.com/news/title/madonna-reveals-new-album-title|title=Madonna Reveals New Album Title|publisher=Icon: Official Madonna website (Madonna.com)|date=2012-01-11|accessdate=2012-01-11}}</ref>
|description2= Composed with the darker electronic undertones, eastern [[string orchestra|strings]] and Middle Eastern percussion, "Frozen" features Madonna's previously unexplored vocal range.
}}
Madonna's music has been the subject of much analysisanalyslà andmộtnd scrutiny of critics. [[Robert McQueen Grant|Robert M. Grant]], author of ''Contemporary Strategy Analysis'' (2005), commented that what has brought Madonna success is "certainly not outstanding natural talent. As a vocalist, musician, dancer, songwriter, or actress, Madonna's talents seem modest."<ref name=CSA>{{harvnb|Grant|2005|p=6}}</ref> He asserts Madonna's success is in relying on the talents of others, and that her personal relationships have served as cornerstones to the numerous reinventions in the longevity of her career.<ref name=CSA/> Madonna's approach was far from the music industry wisdom of "Find a winning formula and stick to it." Her musical career has been a continuous experimentation with new musical ideas and new images and a constant quest for new heights of fame and acclaim. Grant concluded that "having established herself as the queen of popular music, Madonna did not stop there, but continued re-inventing."<ref>{{harvnb|Grant|2005|p=3}}</ref> Conversely, ''Rolling Stone'' has named Madonna "an exemplary songwriter with a gift for hooks and indelible lyrics, and a better studio singer than her live spectacles attest."<ref name="Rolling Biography"/> [[Mark Bego]], author of ''Madonna: Blonde Ambition'', called her "the perfect vocalist for lighter-than-air songs", despite not being a "heavyweight talent."<ref>{{harvnb|Bego|2000|p=122}}</ref> Madonna has always been self-conscious about her voice, especially in comparison to her vocal idols such as [[Ella Fitzgerald]], [[Prince (musician)|Prince]] and [[Chaka Khan]].<ref name="fouzvocal"/>
 
Throughout her career, Madonna has written and co-written most of her own materials, as well as songs of other artists such as [[Nick Kamen]]'s "[[Each Time You Break My Heart]]" and [[Gary Barlow]]'s "[[Love Won't Wait]]".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.ascap.com/ace/search.cfm?requesttimeout=300&mode=results&searchstr=2947550&search_in=c&search_type=exact&search_det=t,s,w,p,b,v&results_pp=25&start=1|title=Works written by Madonna L. Ciccone|publisher=[[American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers]]|accessdate=2011-08-07}}</ref> According to Freya Jarman-Ivens, Madonna's talent for developing "incredible" hooks for her songs allows the lyrics to capture the attention of the audience, even without the influence of the music. As an example, Jarman-Ivens cites the 1985 single "[[Into the Groove]]" and its line "Live out your fantasy here with me, just let the music set you free; Touch my body, and move in time, now I know you're mine."<ref name="fouz55">{{harvnb|Fouz-Hernández|Jarman-Ivens|2004|pp=55–58}}</ref> From 1983 to 1986, Madonna's musical productions were often girlish and naïve in nature, focusing primarily on love, romance, passion and boy-meets-girl relationships.<ref name="fouz55"/> This changed with the album ''Like a Prayer'', when the lyrics became much more personal, such as in "Promise to Try", which references Madonna's lingering pain at the loss of her mother.<ref name="fouz55"/> Madonna's lyrics often suggest an identification with the gay community. Fouz believes that when Madonna sings "Come on girls, do you believe in love?" in "[[Express Yourself (Madonna song)|Express Yourself]]", she is addressingmộtddressing both the gay audience and the heterosexual female.<ref name="fouz55"/> Even in the ''Erotica'' era, with its often adult-oriented lyrics, the songs appear free-flowing and gullible ("So won't you go down, where it's warm inside" — "Where Life Begins" from ''Erotica''). Madonna's songwriting ability has been criticized, with ''Rolling Stone''{{'}}s Maria Raha calling her lyrics "flighty and not sophisticated. Madonna can only bring a trunk full of trite lyrics on the long standing tradition of pop music, love; when she wasn't singing about love, she was singing about partying and dancing."<ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|last=Raha|first=Maria|date=1987-09-21|work=Rolling Stone|publisher=Jann Wenner|title=Cinderella's big score: women of the punk and indie underground |volume=1078|issue=9|issn=0032-791X|ref=harv}}</ref> Her lyrics were considered banal, and her songwriting capability was largely ignored by critics until the release of ''Ray of Light'' and ''Music''. According to Jarman-Ivens, lyrics such as "You're frozen, when your heart's not open" ("[[Frozen (song)|Frozen]]", 1998) and "I can't remember, when I was young, I can't express if it was wrong" ("Paradise (Not for Me)", 2000) reflected an artistic palette, "encompassing diverse musical, textual and visual styles in its lyrics."<ref name="fouz55"/>
 
[[File:MadonnaVirginTour cropped.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Madonna, seen here on [[The Virgin Tour]], had a bright, girlish vocal [[timbre]] that became passé in her later works.]]
[[File:Marilyn Monroe in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes trailer.jpg|thumb|[[Marilyn Monroe]] (pictured) had a profound influence on Madonna.|alt=Bust of a blond woman in short curled hair and wearing a bright pink, sleeveless dress. Putting both her hands up, she looks to the right of the image.]]
 
According to Taraborrelli, "Almost certainly, the defining moment of Madonna's childhood—the one that would have the most influence in shaping her into the woman she would become—was the tragic and untimely death of her beloved mother."<ref name="mom">{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|pp=11–13}}</ref> Psychiatrist Keith Ablow suggests that her mother's death would have had an immeasurable impact on the young Madonna at a time when her personality was still forming. According to Ablow, the younger a child is atmộtt the time of a serious loss, the more profound the influence and the longer lasting the impact. He concludes that "some people never reconcile themselves to such a loss at an early age, Madonna is not different than them."<ref name="mom"/> Conversely, author [[Lucy O'Brien]] feels that the impact of the rape is, in fact, the motivating factor behind everything Madonna has done, more important even than the death of her mother: "It's not so much grief at her mother's death that drives her, as the sense of abandonment that left her unprotected. She encountered her own worst possible scenario, becoming a victim of male violence, and thereafter turned that full-tilt into her work, reversing the equation at every opportunity."<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/madonna-like-an-icon-by-lucy-obrien-463929.html|title=Madonna: Like an Icon, By Lucy O'Brien|last=Burston|first=Paul|date=2007-09-09|accessdate=2010-09-06|work=The Independent | location=London}}</ref>
 
As they grew older, Madonna and her sisters would feel deep sadness as the vivid memory of their mother began drifting, farther from them. They would study pictures of her and come to think that she resembled poet [[Anne Sexton]] and Hollywood actresses. This would later raise Madonna's interest in poetry with [[Sylvia Plath]] being her favourite.<ref name="mom"/> Later, Madonna commented: "We were all wounded in one way or another by [her death], and then we spent the rest of our lives reacting to it or dealing with it or trying to turn into something else. The anguish of losing my mom left me with a certain kind of loneliness and an incredible longing for something. If I hadn't had that emptiness, I wouldn't have been so driven. Her death had a lot to do with me saying—after I got over my heartache—I'm going to be really strong if I can't have my mother. I'm going to take care of myself."<ref name="mom"/> Taraborrelli felt that in time, no doubt because of the devastation she felt, Madonna would never again allow herself, or even her daughter, to feel as abandoned as she had felt when her mother died. "Her death had taught [Madonna] a valuable lesson, that she would have to remain strong for herself because, she feared weakness—particularly her own—and wanted to be the queen of her own castle."<ref name="mom"/>
In ''The Madonna Companion'', biographers Allen Metz and Carol Benson noted that more than any other recent pop artist, Madonna had used MTV and music videos to establish her popularity and enhance her recorded work.<ref name="metz2">{{harvnb|Metz|Benson|1999|p=161}}</ref> According to them, many of her songs have the imagery of the music video in strong context, while referring to the music. The media and public reaction towards her most-discussed songs such as "Papa Don't Preach", "Like a Prayer" or "Justify My Love" had to do with the music videos created to promote the song and their impact, rather than the song itself.<ref name="metz2"/> Morton felt that "artistically, Madonna's songwriting is often overshadowed by her striking pop videos."<ref>{{harvnb|Morton|2002|p=20}}</ref> Madonna's initial music videos reflected her American and Hispanic mixed street style combined with a flamboyant glamor.<ref name="metz2"/> She was able to transmit her avant-garde downtown New York fashion sense to the American audience.<ref>{{harvnb|Metz|Benson|1999|p=163}}</ref> The imagery and incorporation of Hispanic culture and Catholic symbolism continued with the music videos from the ''True Blue'' era.<ref>{{harvnb|Fouz-Hernández|Jarman-Ivens|2004|p=145}}</ref> Author [[Douglas Kellner]] noted, "such 'multiculturalism' and her culturally transgressive moves turned out to be highly successful moves that endeared her to large and varied youth audiences".<ref>{{harvnb|Kellner|1995|p=271}}</ref> Madonna's Spanish look in the videos became the fashion trend of that time, in the form of boleros and layered skirts, accessorizing with rosary beads and a crucifix as in the video of "La Isla Bonita".<ref>{{harvnb|Clerk|2002|p=44}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Rettenmund|1995|p=34}}</ref> Academics noted that with her videos, Madonna was subtly reversing the usual role of male as the dominant sex.<ref>{{harvnb|Welton|1998|p=234}}</ref> This symbolism and imagery was probably the most prevalent in the music video for "Like a Prayer". The video included scenes of an African-American church choir, Madonna attracted to a statue of a black saint, and singing in front of burning crosses. This mix of the sacred and the profane upset the Vatican and resulted in the Pepsi commercial withdrawal.<ref>{{harvnb|Cross|2007|p=70}}</ref> Madonna has been honored with 20 [[MTV Video Music Award]]s—the most for any artist—including the lifetime achievement "[[MTV Video Vanguard Award|Video Vanguard Award]]" in 1986.<ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|title=Who has won the most MTV Video Music Awards?|date=March 2008|work=[[Vibe (magazine)|Vibe]]|publisher=Vibe Media Group|issn=1070-4701|volume=16|issue=2|page=58|ref=harv}}</ref> In 2003, MTV named her "The Greatest Music Video Star Ever" and said that "Madonna's innovation, creativity and contribution to the music video art form is what won her the award."<ref>{{harvnb|Landrum|2007|p=258}}</ref>
 
Madonna's emergence occurred during the advent of MTV, and, according to Chris Nelson from ''[[The New York Times]]'', "with its almost exclusively [[lip sync|lip-sync]]ed videos, ushered in an era in which average music fans might happily spend hours a day, every day, watching singers just mouth the words."<ref name="sync">{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/01/arts/music/01NELS.html?pagewanted=1|title=Lip-Synching Gets Real|last=Nelson|first=Chris|date=2004-02-01|work=The New York Times|accessdate=2010-02-25}}</ref> The symbiotic relationship between the music video and lip-syncing led to a desire for the spectacle and imagery of the music video to be transferred to live stage shows. He added, "Artists like Madonna and [[Janet Jackson]] set new standards for showmanship, with concerts that included not only elaborate costumes and precision-timed pyrotechnics but also highly athletic dancing. These effects came at the expense of live singing."<ref name="sync"/> Thor Christensen of the ''[[The Dallas Morning News|Dallas Morning News]]'' commented that while Madonna earned a reputation for lip-syncing during her 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour, she has subsequently reorganized her performances by "stay[ing] mostly still during her toughest singing parts and [leaves] the dance routines to her backup troupe&nbsp;... [r]ather than try to croon and dance up a storm at the same time."<ref name="lip-sync">{{chú thích báo| last1 = Christensen|first1 = Thor|title = Loose Lips: Pop Singers' Lip-Syncing In Concert Is Anmộtn Open Secret| page = B.8|newspaper = [[Pittsburgh Post-Gazette]]|date = 2001-09-15| issn = 1068624X| ref = harv| postscript = <!--None-->}}</ref> To allow for greater movement while dancing and singing, she was one of the earliest adopters of hands-free radio-frequency headset microphones, with the headset fastened over the ears or the top of the head, and the microphone capsule on a boom arm that extended to the mouth. Because of her prominent usage, the microphone design came to be known as the "Madonna mic".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://harada-sound.com/sound/handbook/rfmics.html|title=Kai Harada, sound designer and sound handbook author, writes about "The Feeding and Care of RF Microphones|last=Harada|first=Kai|date=2007-09-01|publisher=Harada-Sound.com|accessdate=2010-03-17}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/wimbledons-no-1-seat-455502.html|title=Wimbledon's No 1 seat|last=Castle|first=Andrew|date=2007-07-02|work=The Independent|publisher=Independent News & Media|accessdate=2010-03-17|authorlink=Andrew Castle|location=London}}</ref> Metz noted that Madonna represents a [[paradox]] as she is often perceived as living her whole life as a performance. While her big-screen performances are panned, her live performances are critical successes.<ref>{{harvnb|Metz|Benson|1999|p=290}}</ref> Madonna was the first artist to have her concert tours as reenactment of her music videos. Author Elin Diamond explained that reciprocally, the fact that images from Madonna's videos can be recreated in a live setting enhances the realism of the original videos. Thus her live performances have become the means by which mediatized representations are naturalized.<ref>{{harvnb|Diamond|1996|p=202}}</ref> Taraborrelli said that encompassing multimedia, latest technology and sound systems, Madonna's concerts and live performances are deemed as "extravagant show piece, a walking art show."<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=90}}</ref>
 
==Legacy==
{{See also|List of awards and nominations received by Madonna|Madonna as gay icon|Madonna wannabe|Madonna Studies}}
[[File:Madonnaperformingstickyandsweettour2008.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=A blond woman standing on a stage. She has curvy, flowing hair and is dressed in a black, translucent top with boots in her leg and a white hat. The woman is holding an electric guitar with her left hand and singing in to a microphone in her right. She is surrounded by audience members whose heads can be seen in the image. Behind the woman, tow back-up singers can be seen in the distance.|Madonna performing at her [[Sticky & Sweet Tour]], the highest-grossing tour of all time by a solo artist]]
Madonna has been considered to be one of the greatest figures in music and one of the most influential women in history.<ref name="century"/> She is featured in the book ''100 Most Important Women of the 20th Century'', published in 1998 by [[Ladies' Home Journal]].<ref name="century">{{chú thích báo|url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/35762719.html?dids=35762719:35762719&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Nov+08%2C+1998&author=Vicky+Edwards.+Compiled+by+Wendy+Navratil.&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=WOMEN%27S+WORKS+GET+THEIR+WORDS%27+WORTH&pqatl=google|title=Women's Works Get Their Words' Worth|first=Vicky|last=Edwards|work=[[Chicago Tribune]]|publisher=[[Tribune Company]]|date=1998-11-08|accessdate=2011-09-07}}</ref> In 2010, ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine included Madonna in the elite list of the "25 Most Powerful Women of the Past Century", where she became one of the only two singers included, alongside [[Aretha Franklin]].<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2029774_2029776_2031853,00.html|title=The 25 Most Powerful Women of the Past Century: Madonna (1958–present)|last=Castillo|first=Michelle|date=2010-11-18|accessdate=2010-12-15|work=Time}}</ref> Madonna also topped the [[VH1]]'s list of "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era".<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.vh1.com/shows/the_greatest/episode.jhtml?episodeID=66355|title=50 Greatest Women of the Video Era|publisher=[[VH1]]|accessdate=2011-02-28}}</ref> Academic authors Ros Horton and Sally Simmons documented Madonna on their 2007 book ''Women Who Changed the World'', which "pays homage to fifty of the most influential and admired women of all time."<ref name="womenworld"/> She was inducted into the [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]] on March 10, 2008—her first year of eligibility—for "influence and significance on rock and roll music."<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.heraldsun.com.au/entertainment/music/madonna-still-manages-to-shock/story-e6frf9hf-1111115778132|title=Madonna shocks with confession at Hall of Fame acceptance speech|date=2008-03-12|work=[[Herald Sun]]|publisher=[[The Herald and Weekly Times]]|accessdate=2010-05-15}}</ref> Additionally, Madonna ranked seventh on VH1 and ''[[People (magazine)|People]]'' magazine's list of the "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time."<ref>{{chú thích báo |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0307/21/se.15.html|last=Castro|first=Peter|title=Live From The Headlines| publisher=CNN| date=2003-07-21|accessdate=2010-02-29}}</ref> In 2006, a new [[Tardigrade|water bear]] species, ''Echiniscus madonnae'', was named after her.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.tardigrada.net/goodies_wallpapers.htm |title=Echiniscus madonnae|work=Tardigrada Newsletter|publisher=Michalczyk & Kaczmarek|year=2006|accessdate=2008-06-14|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080221101821/http://www.tardigrada.net/goodies_wallpapers.htm |archivedate = February 21, 2008|deadurl=yes}}</ref> The paper with the description of ''E. madonnae'' was published in the international journal of animal taxonomy ''[[Zootaxa]]'' in March 2006 (Vol. 1154, pages: 1–36). The Zoologists commented: "We take great pleasure in dedicating this species to one of the most significant artists of our times, Madonna Louise Veronica Ritchie."<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=711164 |title=Echiniscus madonnae |publisher=[[Integrated Taxonomic Information System]] |accessdate=2008-06-03}}</ref> Aside from her critical acknowledgement, Madonna has also earned overwhelming commercial accomplishments. She has achieved multiple ''[[Guinness World Records]]'' citations, including world's top-selling female recording artist and most successful female recording artist of all time.<ref name="guinness"/> Madonna has sold more than 300&nbsp;million records worldwide.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.independent.ie/entertainment/music/u2-strike-a-chord-in-the-best-albums-from-2009-1997058.html|title=U2 strike a chord in the best albums from 2009|last=Egan|first=Barry|date=2010-01-03|work=[[The Independent]]|publisher=[[Independent News & Media]]|accessdate=2010-07-23}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/showbiz/celebrity-interviews/2011/09/09/madonna-society-is-obsessed-with-celebrity-it-s-easy-to-become-famous-now-86908-23407361/|title=Madonna: Society is obsessed with celebrity - it's easy to become famous now|first=Rick|last=Fulton|work=[[Daily Record (Scotland)|Daily Record]]|publisher=[[Trinity Mirror]]|date=2011-09-09|accessdate=2011-09-21}}</ref> According to the [[Recording Industry Association of America]] (RIAA), she is the best-selling female rock artist of the 20th century and the second [[List of best-selling music artists in the United States|top-selling female artist in the United States]], behind [[Barbra Streisand]], with 64&nbsp;million [[RIAA certification|certified]] albums.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTopArt |title=Top Selling Artists |publisher=[[Recording Industry Association of America]]|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.riaa.com/newsitem.php?news_year_filter=1999&resultpage=2&id=3ABF3EC8-EF5B-58F9-E949-3B57F5E313DF|first=Press Release|title=The American Recording Industry Announces Its Artists of the Century| publisher=Recording Industry Association of America |date=1999-11-10|accessdate=2008-01-30}}</ref> Madonna is alsomộtlso one of the top-touring artist in history and her [[Sticky & Sweet Tour]] remains the highest-grossing tour of all time by a solo artist.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1600363/madonna-on-track-set-record-with-sticky-amp-sweet-tour.jhtml|title=Madonna On Track To Set Record With Sticky & Sweet Tour|first=Gil|last=Kaufman|publisher=MTV|date=2008-12-01|accessdate=2011-09-07}}</ref> In 2008, ''[[Billboard (magazine)|Billboard]]'' magazine ranked Madonna at number two, behind only [[The Beatles]], on the [[Billboard Hot 100 50th Anniversary Charts|''Billboard'' Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists]], making her the most successful solo artist in the history of American singles chart.<ref name="rsinducted"/> She has also scored many hits on major international charts, including 13 number one singles in the [[List of artists who reached number one on the UK Singles Chart|United Kingdom]], 11 in [[List of artists who reached number one on the Australian singles chart|Australia]], and 23 in [[Canadian Singles Chart|Canada]]—all of which are more than any other female artist.<ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2008/01_january/05/one_superstars.shtml|title=The musical superstars|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-06-09}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích sách |last=Ryan|first=Gavin|title=ARIA Singles Chart Book 1988–2008|edition=1st|year=2009|publisher=Moonlight Publishing|location=Mt. Martha, Victoria|pages=91–92}}</ref><ref>{{chú thích web|url=http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/rpm/028020-110.01-e.php?PHPSESSID=v2a76h62to0aart05gg0u3agj2&q1=Madonna|title=Madonna singles discography|work=[[RPM (magazine)|RPM]]|publisher=RPM Library Archives|accessdate=2009-10-08}}</ref>
 
Caryn Ganz from ''Rolling Stone'' wrote that "Madonna is the most media-savvy American pop star since [[Bob Dylan]] and, until she toned down her press-baiting behavior in the nineties, she was the most consistently controversial one since [[Elvis Presley]]." According to her, Madonna's self-celebrating dance music and outré videos provided feminism with a makeover. Throughout the eighties she broke down sexual boundaries, making eroticism a crucial pop-song element, and challenging social and religious mores. Ganz felt that one fact was rarely disputed: "At nearly every turn, Madonna has maintained firm control over her career and image."<ref name="Rolling Biography"/> Madonna became a leader in the [[Third-wave feminism|Third Wave Feminism]] movement. Third Wave Feminism seeks to challenge and expel the "[[essentialist]]" definition of femininity. For her part, Madonna was a leading figure in encouraging [[sex-positivity]]. Madonna's music and videos celebrated women's sexuality as an exhilarating aspect of life, rather than oppressing and male-dominated. According to [[Camille Paglia]], a ''New York Times'' journalist, Madonna's music and videos have shown women to be fully female and completely sexual, all the while maintaining complete control of their lives.<ref>{{chú thích báo|last=Paglia|first=Camille|authorlink=Camille Paglia|title=Madonna -- Finally, A Real Feminist|url=http://www.nytimes.com/1990/12/14/opinion/madonna-finally-a-real-feminist.html|accessdate=2011-12-06|newspaper=The New York Times|date=1990-12-14}}</ref> For her part, Madonna has stated, "I may be dressing the typical bimbo, whatever, but I’m in charge. You know. I’m in charge of my fantasies. I put myself in these situations with men, you know, and people don’t think of me as a person who’s not in charge of my career or my life, okay. And isn’t that what feminism is allmộtll about, you know, equality for men and women? And aren’t I in charge of my life, doing the things I want to do? Making my own decisions?"<ref>{{chú thích báo|last=Cohen|first=Phillip|title=Madonna Turns 50 -- Wither Feminism?|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/philip-n-cohen/madonna-turns-50-wither-f_b_118248.html|accessdate=2011-12-06|newspaper=The Huffington Post|date=2008-08-13}}</ref>
 
Throughout her career the singer has repeatedly reinvented herself through a series of visual and musical personas, earning her the nickname "Queen of Reinvention".<ref>{{harvnb|Gallo|2006|p=67}}</ref> In doing so, "she exploited her sexuality to fashion herself into a cultural and commercial icon who, for more than a decade, was unchallenged as the reigning Queen of Pop music."<ref>{{harvnb|Axelrod|2007|p=103}}</ref> Fouz-Hernández agrees that these reinventions are one of her key cultural achievements.<ref name="fouz3">{{harvnb|Fouz-Hernández|Jarman-Ivens|2004|p=168}}</ref> Madonna reinvented herself by working with upcoming talented producers and previously unknown artists, while remaining at the center of media attention. According to Freya Jarman-Ivens, "In doing so Madonna has provided an example of how to maintain one's career in the entertainment industry."<ref name="fouz3"/> Such reinvention was noted by scholars as the main tool in surviving the musical industry, for a female artist.<ref>{{harvnb|Tetzlaff|1993|p=259}}</ref> As Ian Youngs from [[BBC News]] commented, "Her ability to follow the latest trends and adapt her style has often been credited with preserving her appeal."<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/2953665.stm|title=Madonna fights to keep pop crown|publisher=BBC|date=2003-04-18|author=Ian Youngs|accessdate=2010-02-27}}</ref> Madonna's use of shocking sexual imagery has benefited her career and catalyzed public discourse on sexuality and feminism.<ref name="fouz3"/> ''The Times'' stated, "Madonna, whether you like her or not, started a revolution amongst women in music&nbsp;... Her attitudes and opinions on sex, nudity, style and sexuality forced the public to sit up and take notice."<ref name="fouz2"/> Rodger Streitmatter, author of ''Sex Sells!'' (2004), commented that "from the moment Madonna burst onto the nation's radar screen in the mid-1980s, she did everything in her power to shock the public, and her efforts paid off."<ref name="sex sells">{{harvnb|Streitmatter|2004|p=34}}</ref> Shmuel Boteach, author of ''Hating women'' (2005), felt that Madonna was largely responsible for erasing the line between music and pornography. He stated: "Before Madonna, it was possible for women more famous for their voices than their cleavage, to emerge as music superstars. But in the post-Madonna universe, even highly original performers such as Janet Jackson now feel the pressure to expose their bodies on national television to sell albums."<ref>{{harvnb|Boteach|2005|p=110}}</ref>
 
{{quote box|align=right|width=30%|quote=Very few public figures are such wizards at manipulating the press and cultivating publicity as Madonna is. She has always been a great tease with journalists, brash and outspoken when the occasion demanded it, recalcitrant and taciturn when it came time to pull back and slow down the striptease. Madonna is amột self-created woman, no question, but it was not a virgin birth: her adroit handling of the press played a major part in the consummation. Publicity is the name of the game.<ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|last=Kahn|first=Becky|title=Madonna: Changed Woman|date=May 1989|work=[[Interview (magazine)|Interview]]|publisher=CNET Networks|issn=0149-8932|volume=24|issue=9|page=34|ref=harv}}</ref>|source=—Becky Johnson from ''[[Interview (magazine)|Interview]]'' commenting on Madonna's popularity.
}}
Madonna has influenced numerous music artists throughout her career. Mary Cross, in her book ''Madonna: A Biography'', wrote: "Her influence on pop music is undeniable and far-reaching. New pop icons from [[Nelly Furtado]] and [[Shakira]] to [[Gwen Stefani]] and [[Christina Aguilera]] (not to mention [[Britney Spears]]) owe Madonna, a debt of thanks for the template she forged, combining provocative sexiness and female power in her image, music, and lyrics."<ref>{{harvnb|Cross|2007|p=107}}</ref> According to Fouz-Hernández, female pop performers such as Spears, the [[Spice Girls]], [[Destiny's Child]], [[Jennifer Lopez]], [[Kylie Minogue]] and [[Pink (singer)|Pink]] were like "Madonna's daughters in the very direct sense that they grew up listening to and admiring Madonna, and decided they wanted to be like her."<ref name="fouz4">{{harvnb|Fouz-Hernández|Jarman-Ivens|2004|p=161}}</ref> Among them, Madonna's influence was most notable in Spears, who has been called her protégé.<ref name="fouz2">{{harvnb|Fouz-Hernández|Jarman-Ivens|2004|p=162}}</ref> Madonna has also been credited with the introduction of European [[electronic dance music]] into mainstream American pop culture, and for bringing European producers such as [[Stuart Price]] and [[MirwaisMirwalà Ahmadzaïmộthmadzaï]] into the spotlight.<ref name="fouz"/>
 
Madonna has received acclaim as a role model for businesswomen in her industry, "achieving the kind of financial control that women had long fought for within the industry", and generating over $1.2&nbsp;billion in sales within the first decade of her career.<ref name="Routledge">{{harvnb|Kramarae|Spender|2000|p=459}}</ref> As Taraborrelli noted, she already showed strong business sensibilities early in her career when she signed Freddie de Mann, Michael Jackson's former manager, to manage her career.<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=99}}</ref> As she said to ''[[Smash Hits]]'' magazine, "I thought, who’s the most successful person in the music industry and who’s his manager? I want him." Since it was Jackson, Madonna wanted de Mann more than anything else, and chance came when she learned that they have parted ways recently. After signing de Mann, her Madonna's associates had expressed their apprehension as to whether that was a good business decision by her. Madonna was adamant that since de Mann was free he would be able to devote all his time into his career. True to her, Madonna's popularity increased significantly, being asked to do more promotional tours and media appearances.<ref>{{chú thích tạp chí|last=Ellen|first=Mark|authorlink=Mark Ellen|title=Madonna: Queen Kajagoogoo|date=1984-06-02|work=[[Smash Hits]]|publisher=[[EMAP|EMAP Metro]]|issn=0260-3004|volume=12|page=13|ref=harv}}</ref> Her seriousness towards her business was also portrayed in the ''Truth or Dare'' documentary, in a scene where Madonna throws out the cameraman as she was going to have a business meeting. This led Taraborrelli to comment that "she always knew the importance of the outcomes of these discussions with her associates. And she wanted the element of surprise."<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=312}}</ref> After its establishment, Maverick Records became a major commercial success from her efforts, which was unusual at that time for an artist-established label.<ref name="susmanchaos">{{chú thích báo|title=So-called Chaos|first=Gary|last=Susman|work=Entertainment Weekly|url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,652432,00.html|date=2004-06-15|accessdate=2009-08-03}}</ref> Music journalist Robert Sandall said that while interviewing Madonna, it was clear that being "a cultural big hitter" was more important to her than pop music, a career she described as "an accident". He also saw a contrast between her anything-goes sexual public persona and a secretive and "paranoid" attitude toward her own finances; she fired her own brother when he charged her for an extra item.<ref name="sandall">{{chú thích báo|url=http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/music/article6015124.ece|last=Sandall|first=Robert|title=Why Madonna is still a Material Girl|work=The Times|date=2009-04-05|accessdate=2009-08-09| location=London}}</ref> Professor Colin Barrow of the [[Cranfield School of Management]] described Madonna as "America's smartest businesswoman... who has moved to the top of her industry and stayed there by constantly reinventing herself". He held up her "planning, personal discipline and constant attention to detail" as models for all aspiring entrepreneurs.<ref>{{chú thích báo|url=http://news.scotsman.com/madonna/Get-a-head-for-business.2566459.jp|title=Get a head for business, tune into Madonna|last=Johnston|first=Ian|work=[[The Scotsman]]|publisher=[[Johnston Press]]|date=2004-09-23|accessdate=2010-07-24}}</ref> [[London Business School]] academics called her a "dynamic entrepreneur" worth copying; they identified her vision of success, her understanding of the music industry, her ability to recognize her own performance limits (and thus bring in help), her willingness to work hard and her ability to adapt as the key to her commercial success.<ref name=LBS>{{chú thích báo|url=http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/career_and_jobs/graduate_management/article1293585.ece|title=Case Study: Madonna|first=Jamie|last=Anderson|first2=Martin|last2=Kupp|work=The Times|date= 2007-01-18|accessdate=2009-08-03|location=London}}</ref> Morton commented that "Madonna is opportunistic, manipulative and ruthless—somebody who won't stop until she gets what she wants—and that's something you can get at the expense of maybe losing your close ones. But that hardly mattered to her."<ref>{{harvnb|Morton|2002|p=89}}</ref> Taraborrelli felt that this ruthlessness was visible during the shooting of the Pepsi commercial in 1989. "The fact that she didn't want to hold a Pepsi can in the commercial, clued the Pepsi executives that Madonna the pop star and Madonna the businesswoman were not going to be dictated by somebody else, she will do everything in her way—the only way."<ref>{{harvnb|Taraborrelli|2002|p=167}}</ref> Conversely, reporter Michael McWilliams commented: "The gripes about Madonna–she's cold, greedy, talentless–conceal both bigotry and the essence of her art, which is amongmộtmong the warmest, the most humane, the most profoundly satisfying in all pop culture."<ref>{{chú thích báo|last=McWilliams|first=Michael|title=Why the rock world hates Madonna|work=[[The Detroit News|Detroit News]]|url=http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080224/ENT04/802240345/1031/POLITICS01|date=1990-04-21|accessdate=2009-10-11}}</ref>
 
==Discography==